What is TTIP? And six reasons why the answer should scare you,


What is TTIP? And six reasons why the answer should scare you

Have you heard about TTIP? If your answer is no, don’t get too worried; you’re not meant to have

  • Lee Williams
  • @leeroy112
  • Tuesday 6 October 2015 09:30 BST

Are you the answer

Protesters march against the controversial TTIP deal in London last year Glyn Thomas

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is a series of trade negotiations being carried out mostly in secret between the EU and US. As a bi-lateral trade agreement, TTIP is about reducing the regulatory barriers to trade for big business, things like food safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations. It is, as John Hilary, Executive Director of campaign group War on Want, said: “An assault on European and US societies by transnational corporations.”

Since before TTIP negotiations began last February, the process has been secretive and undemocratic. This secrecy is on-going, with nearly all information on negotiations coming from leaked documents and Freedom of Information requests.

But worryingly, the covert nature of the talks may well be the least of our problems. Here are six other reasons why we should be scared of TTIP, very scared indeed:

Public services, especially the NHS, are in the firing line. One of the main aims of TTIP is to open up Europe’s public health, education and water services to US companies. This could essentially mean the privatisation of the NHS.

The European Commission has claimed that public services will be kept out of TTIP. However, according to the Huffington Post, the UK Trade Minister Lord Livingston has admitted that talks about the NHS were still on the table.

2 Food and environmental safety

TTIP’s ‘regulatory convergence’ agenda will seek to bring EU standards on food safety and the environment closer to those of the US. But US regulations are much less strict, with 70 per cent of all processed foods sold in US supermarkets now containing genetically modified ingredients. By contrast, the EU allows virtually no GM foods. The US also has far laxer restrictions on the use of pesticides. It also uses growth hormones in its beef which are restricted in Europe due to links to cancer. US farmers have tried to have these restrictions lifted repeatedly in the past through the World Trade Organisation and it is likely that they will use TTIP to do so again.

The same goes for the environment, where the EU’s REACH regulations are far tougher on potentially toxic substances. In Europe a company has to prove a substance is safe before it can be used; in the US the opposite is true: any substance can be used until it is proven unsafe. As an example, the EU currently bans 1,200 substances from use in cosmetics; the US just 12.

TTIP cuts both ways. The UK, under the influence of the all-powerful City of London, is thought to be seeking a loosening of US banking regulations. America’s financial rules are tougher than ours. They were put into place after the financial crisis to directly curb the powers of bankers and avoid a similar crisis happening again. TTIP, it is feared, will remove those restrictions, effectively handing all those powers back to the bankers.

Remember ACTA (the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement)? It was thrown out by a massive majority in the European Parliament in 2012 after a huge public backlash against what was rightly seen as an attack on individual privacy where internet service providers would be required to monitor people’s online activity. Well, it’s feared that TTIP could be bringing back ACTA’s central elements, proving that if the democratic approach doesn’t work, there’s always the back door. An easing of data privacy laws and a restriction of public access to pharmaceutical companies’ clinical trials are also thought to be on the cards.

The EU has admitted that TTIP will probably cause unemployment as jobs switch to the US, where labour standards and trade union rights are lower. It has even advised EU members to draw on European support funds to compensate for the expected unemployment.

Examples from other similar bi-lateral trade agreements around the world support the case for job losses. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the US, Canada and Mexico caused the loss of one million US jobs over 12 years, instead of the hundreds of thousands of extra that were promised.

TTIP’s biggest threat to society is its inherent assault on democracy. One of the main aims of TTIP is the introduction of Investor-State Dispute Settlements (ISDS), which allow companies to sue governments if those governments’ policies cause a loss of profits. In effect it means unelected transnational corporations can dictate the policies of democratically elected governments.

ISDSs are already in place in other bi-lateral trade agreements around the world and have led to such injustices as in Germany where Swedish energy company Vattenfall is suing the German government for billions of dollars over its decision to phase out nuclear power plants in the wake of the Fukushima disaster in Japan. Here we see a public health policy put into place by a democratically elected government being threatened by an energy giant because of a potential loss of profit. Nothing could be more cynically anti-democratic.

There are around 500 similar cases of businesses versus nations going on around the world at the moment and they are all taking place before ‘arbitration tribunals’ made up of corporate lawyers appointed on an ad hoc basis, which according to War on Want’s John Hilary, are “little more than kangaroo courts” with “a vested interest in ruling in favour of business.”

So I don’t know about you, but I’m scared. I would vote against TTIP, except… hang on a minute… I can’t. Like you, I have no say whatsoever in whether TTIP goes through or not. All I can do is tell as many people about it as possible, as I hope, will you. We may be forced to accept an attack on democracy but we can at least fight against the conspiracy of silence.


What is TTIP? And six reasons why the answer should scare you,


What is TTIP? And six reasons why the answer should scare you

Have you heard about TTIP? If your answer is no, don’t get too worried; you’re not meant to have

  • Lee Williams
  • @leeroy112
  • Tuesday 6 October 2015 09:30 BST

Are you the answer

Protesters march against the controversial TTIP deal in London last year Glyn Thomas

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is a series of trade negotiations being carried out mostly in secret between the EU and US. As a bi-lateral trade agreement, TTIP is about reducing the regulatory barriers to trade for big business, things like food safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations. It is, as John Hilary, Executive Director of campaign group War on Want, said: “An assault on European and US societies by transnational corporations.”

Since before TTIP negotiations began last February, the process has been secretive and undemocratic. This secrecy is on-going, with nearly all information on negotiations coming from leaked documents and Freedom of Information requests.

But worryingly, the covert nature of the talks may well be the least of our problems. Here are six other reasons why we should be scared of TTIP, very scared indeed:

Public services, especially the NHS, are in the firing line. One of the main aims of TTIP is to open up Europe’s public health, education and water services to US companies. This could essentially mean the privatisation of the NHS.

The European Commission has claimed that public services will be kept out of TTIP. However, according to the Huffington Post, the UK Trade Minister Lord Livingston has admitted that talks about the NHS were still on the table.

2 Food and environmental safety

TTIP’s ‘regulatory convergence’ agenda will seek to bring EU standards on food safety and the environment closer to those of the US. But US regulations are much less strict, with 70 per cent of all processed foods sold in US supermarkets now containing genetically modified ingredients. By contrast, the EU allows virtually no GM foods. The US also has far laxer restrictions on the use of pesticides. It also uses growth hormones in its beef which are restricted in Europe due to links to cancer. US farmers have tried to have these restrictions lifted repeatedly in the past through the World Trade Organisation and it is likely that they will use TTIP to do so again.

The same goes for the environment, where the EU’s REACH regulations are far tougher on potentially toxic substances. In Europe a company has to prove a substance is safe before it can be used; in the US the opposite is true: any substance can be used until it is proven unsafe. As an example, the EU currently bans 1,200 substances from use in cosmetics; the US just 12.

TTIP cuts both ways. The UK, under the influence of the all-powerful City of London, is thought to be seeking a loosening of US banking regulations. America’s financial rules are tougher than ours. They were put into place after the financial crisis to directly curb the powers of bankers and avoid a similar crisis happening again. TTIP, it is feared, will remove those restrictions, effectively handing all those powers back to the bankers.

Remember ACTA (the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement)? It was thrown out by a massive majority in the European Parliament in 2012 after a huge public backlash against what was rightly seen as an attack on individual privacy where internet service providers would be required to monitor people’s online activity. Well, it’s feared that TTIP could be bringing back ACTA’s central elements, proving that if the democratic approach doesn’t work, there’s always the back door. An easing of data privacy laws and a restriction of public access to pharmaceutical companies’ clinical trials are also thought to be on the cards.

The EU has admitted that TTIP will probably cause unemployment as jobs switch to the US, where labour standards and trade union rights are lower. It has even advised EU members to draw on European support funds to compensate for the expected unemployment.

Examples from other similar bi-lateral trade agreements around the world support the case for job losses. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the US, Canada and Mexico caused the loss of one million US jobs over 12 years, instead of the hundreds of thousands of extra that were promised.

TTIP’s biggest threat to society is its inherent assault on democracy. One of the main aims of TTIP is the introduction of Investor-State Dispute Settlements (ISDS), which allow companies to sue governments if those governments’ policies cause a loss of profits. In effect it means unelected transnational corporations can dictate the policies of democratically elected governments.

ISDSs are already in place in other bi-lateral trade agreements around the world and have led to such injustices as in Germany where Swedish energy company Vattenfall is suing the German government for billions of dollars over its decision to phase out nuclear power plants in the wake of the Fukushima disaster in Japan. Here we see a public health policy put into place by a democratically elected government being threatened by an energy giant because of a potential loss of profit. Nothing could be more cynically anti-democratic.

There are around 500 similar cases of businesses versus nations going on around the world at the moment and they are all taking place before ‘arbitration tribunals’ made up of corporate lawyers appointed on an ad hoc basis, which according to War on Want’s John Hilary, are “little more than kangaroo courts” with “a vested interest in ruling in favour of business.”

So I don’t know about you, but I’m scared. I would vote against TTIP, except… hang on a minute… I can’t. Like you, I have no say whatsoever in whether TTIP goes through or not. All I can do is tell as many people about it as possible, as I hope, will you. We may be forced to accept an attack on democracy but we can at least fight against the conspiracy of silence.


Download your data – Google Account Help, are you the answer.#Are #you


Download your data

You can export and download your data from the Google products you use, like your email, calendar, and photos. In a few easy steps, create an archive to keep for your records or use the data in another service.

Create an archive of your data

First, choose which products to include

  1. Visit the Download your data page. You might have to sign in to your Google Account.
  2. Choose which Google products to include in your download. To see more details and options for a product, select the Down arrow .
  3. Select Next.
  4. Choose your archive’s “File type.”

Note: Your content from Google Play Music isn’t included when you create an archive. Learn how to download your music.

Next, choose how your archive is delivered

When your archive is created by using one of these options, we’ll email you a link to its location. Depending on the amount of information in your account, this process could take a few minutes or several hours. Most people get the link to their archive the same day that they request it.

We’ll email you a link to download your archive.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Send download link via email.
  2. Choose Create archive.
  3. In the email that arrives, click Download archive.
  4. To download your data, follow the onscreen instructions.

We’ll add your archive to Google Drive and email you a link to its location. Your data will count toward your storage.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to Drive.
  2. Choose Create archive.
  3. In the email that arrives, click View in Drive. You’ll see a folder with your data organized by product.
  4. To download your data, at the top of the screen, select Download .

We’ll upload your archive to Dropbox and email you a link to its location.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to Dropbox.
  2. Choose Link account and create archive.
  3. You’ll be directed to Dropbox. Sign in to your Dropbox account if prompted.
  4. In the Dropbox window that asks if Google Download Your Data can access its own “Apps” folder in your Dropbox, select Allow.
  5. To keep your data private, make sure you’re not sharing this Dropbox folder with anyone else.
  6. In the email that arrives, click View in Dropbox. You’ll be taken to the Dropbox folder with your archive.
  7. To download your data, follow Dropbox’s process to download files.
  • After you follow these steps, Google Download Your Data will show up in your Dropbox security settings as a linked app. You can remove Google as a linked app at any time. (If you export data to Dropbox in the future, you’ll need to give Google access again.)
  • When your archive reaches Dropbox, Google is no longer responsible for it. Your archive will be covered by the Dropbox Terms of Service.

We’ll upload your archive to Microsoft OneDrive and email you a link to its location.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to OneDrive.
  2. Choose Link account and create archive.
  3. You’ll be directed to Microsoft. Sign in to your Microsoft account if prompted.
  4. In the Microsoft window that asks if Google Download Your Data can access your info, select Yes.
  5. To keep your data private, make sure you’re not sharing this OneDrive folder with anyone else.
  6. In the email that arrives, click View in OneDrive. You’ll be taken to the OneDrive folder with your archive.
  7. To download your data, follow OneDrive’s process to download files.
  • After you follow these steps, Google Download Your Data will show up in your Microsoft OneDrive security and privacy settings as an app that can access some of your info. You can remove Google’s access at any time. (If you export data to OneDrive in the future, you’ll need to give Google access again.)
  • When your archive reaches Microsoft OneDrive, Google is no longer responsible for it. Your archive will be covered by the Microsoft Services Agreement.

Common questions

Deciding what format you should choose depends on the service, type of data, and your intended use of it. We have chosen types that we believe are the most useful and portable. For example, we export contacts as vCard, which is a very common format for email providers. We often will also provide additional options to fit your specific needs.

You can store your data anywhere that is safe and has enough room for it. In most cases, it is easiest to download it directly to your computer.

If you use a public computer, store it in Google Drive or an alternate storage space where you are the only user.

Note: If you use Google Drive and plan to delete your Google Account, you’ll have to move your archive to a different storage space before deleting your account.

In order to make sure your data will be downloaded, we limit these zip files to 2GB. Archives that are larger than 2GB are split into multiple zip files. Selecting the tgz or tbz format for your archive will increase the size limit to 50GB, so it is much less likely that your archive will be split.

Note: Special software may be required to unpack a tgz or tbz archive. Keep in mind that these types of files can’t have unicode characters in the file names.

Your archive expires in about 7 days. After that time, you’ll want to create a new archive with your most up-to-date information.

An expired archive doesn’t mean your data has expired, and you won’t experience any change in Google services as a result.

Note: We only allow each archive to be downloaded 5 times; after that, please request another archive.

The security of your data is very important, so when you create an archive, we want to make sure that you’re the only person downloading your data.

To do that, we ask you to re-enter your Google Account password if you haven’t recently. We understand that this may be inconvenient, but it’s important to take extra steps to keep your data safe.

Note: If your account has 2-Step Verification turned on, you may also be asked for an additional verification code that will be sent to your phone.

If something goes wrong with your archive or you’re not able to make one, try creating another one. This approach often fixes the problem.

When you export your mail from Gmail, each message’s labels are preserved in a special X-Gmail-Labels header in your download file. While no mail client recognizes this header now, most mail clients allow for extensions to be written that could make use of the labels.

See Migrate data away from G Suite for options on how to migrate your organization’s email, calendars, documents, and sites.

Send us feedback

Let us know about your experience downloading your data. By sharing your feedback, you help Google improve this product for you and other people.


Download your data – Google Account Help, are you the answer.#Are #you


Download your data

You can export and download your data from the Google products you use, like your email, calendar, and photos. In a few easy steps, create an archive to keep for your records or use the data in another service.

Create an archive of your data

First, choose which products to include

  1. Visit the Download your data page. You might have to sign in to your Google Account.
  2. Choose which Google products to include in your download. To see more details and options for a product, select the Down arrow .
  3. Select Next.
  4. Choose your archive’s “File type.”

Note: Your content from Google Play Music isn’t included when you create an archive. Learn how to download your music.

Next, choose how your archive is delivered

When your archive is created by using one of these options, we’ll email you a link to its location. Depending on the amount of information in your account, this process could take a few minutes or several hours. Most people get the link to their archive the same day that they request it.

We’ll email you a link to download your archive.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Send download link via email.
  2. Choose Create archive.
  3. In the email that arrives, click Download archive.
  4. To download your data, follow the onscreen instructions.

We’ll add your archive to Google Drive and email you a link to its location. Your data will count toward your storage.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to Drive.
  2. Choose Create archive.
  3. In the email that arrives, click View in Drive. You’ll see a folder with your data organized by product.
  4. To download your data, at the top of the screen, select Download .

We’ll upload your archive to Dropbox and email you a link to its location.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to Dropbox.
  2. Choose Link account and create archive.
  3. You’ll be directed to Dropbox. Sign in to your Dropbox account if prompted.
  4. In the Dropbox window that asks if Google Download Your Data can access its own “Apps” folder in your Dropbox, select Allow.
  5. To keep your data private, make sure you’re not sharing this Dropbox folder with anyone else.
  6. In the email that arrives, click View in Dropbox. You’ll be taken to the Dropbox folder with your archive.
  7. To download your data, follow Dropbox’s process to download files.
  • After you follow these steps, Google Download Your Data will show up in your Dropbox security settings as a linked app. You can remove Google as a linked app at any time. (If you export data to Dropbox in the future, you’ll need to give Google access again.)
  • When your archive reaches Dropbox, Google is no longer responsible for it. Your archive will be covered by the Dropbox Terms of Service.

We’ll upload your archive to Microsoft OneDrive and email you a link to its location.

  1. For “Delivery method,” select Add to OneDrive.
  2. Choose Link account and create archive.
  3. You’ll be directed to Microsoft. Sign in to your Microsoft account if prompted.
  4. In the Microsoft window that asks if Google Download Your Data can access your info, select Yes.
  5. To keep your data private, make sure you’re not sharing this OneDrive folder with anyone else.
  6. In the email that arrives, click View in OneDrive. You’ll be taken to the OneDrive folder with your archive.
  7. To download your data, follow OneDrive’s process to download files.
  • After you follow these steps, Google Download Your Data will show up in your Microsoft OneDrive security and privacy settings as an app that can access some of your info. You can remove Google’s access at any time. (If you export data to OneDrive in the future, you’ll need to give Google access again.)
  • When your archive reaches Microsoft OneDrive, Google is no longer responsible for it. Your archive will be covered by the Microsoft Services Agreement.

Common questions

Deciding what format you should choose depends on the service, type of data, and your intended use of it. We have chosen types that we believe are the most useful and portable. For example, we export contacts as vCard, which is a very common format for email providers. We often will also provide additional options to fit your specific needs.

You can store your data anywhere that is safe and has enough room for it. In most cases, it is easiest to download it directly to your computer.

If you use a public computer, store it in Google Drive or an alternate storage space where you are the only user.

Note: If you use Google Drive and plan to delete your Google Account, you’ll have to move your archive to a different storage space before deleting your account.

In order to make sure your data will be downloaded, we limit these zip files to 2GB. Archives that are larger than 2GB are split into multiple zip files. Selecting the tgz or tbz format for your archive will increase the size limit to 50GB, so it is much less likely that your archive will be split.

Note: Special software may be required to unpack a tgz or tbz archive. Keep in mind that these types of files can’t have unicode characters in the file names.

Your archive expires in about 7 days. After that time, you’ll want to create a new archive with your most up-to-date information.

An expired archive doesn’t mean your data has expired, and you won’t experience any change in Google services as a result.

Note: We only allow each archive to be downloaded 5 times; after that, please request another archive.

The security of your data is very important, so when you create an archive, we want to make sure that you’re the only person downloading your data.

To do that, we ask you to re-enter your Google Account password if you haven’t recently. We understand that this may be inconvenient, but it’s important to take extra steps to keep your data safe.

Note: If your account has 2-Step Verification turned on, you may also be asked for an additional verification code that will be sent to your phone.

If something goes wrong with your archive or you’re not able to make one, try creating another one. This approach often fixes the problem.

When you export your mail from Gmail, each message’s labels are preserved in a special X-Gmail-Labels header in your download file. While no mail client recognizes this header now, most mail clients allow for extensions to be written that could make use of the labels.

See Migrate data away from G Suite for options on how to migrate your organization’s email, calendars, documents, and sites.

Send us feedback

Let us know about your experience downloading your data. By sharing your feedback, you help Google improve this product for you and other people.


Перевод веб-страниц и изменение языковых настроек Chrome – Компьютер – Cправка –


Перевод веб-страниц и изменение языковых настроек Chrome

Вы можете переводить веб-страницы прямо в браузере, а также менять язык интерфейса Chrome.

Как переводить веб-страницы в Chrome

Если вы открыли страницу на незнакомом языке, воспользуйтесь функцией перевода:

  1. Запустите браузер Chrome.
  2. Откройте страницу на иностранном языке.
  3. В верхней части страницы нажмите Перевести.
  4. Chrome не сохраняет переведенные страницы, поэтому это действие нужно повторять каждый раз.

Не удалось перевести страницу? Попробуйте обновить ее. Если кнопка Перевести не работает, возможно, этот язык не поддерживается. Подробнее о том, как настроить языки, с которых Chrome будет выполнять перевод…

Как включить или отключить перевод

Chrome по умолчанию предлагает переводить страницы на незнакомом языке.

Выполните следующие действия:

  1. Запустите браузер Chrome на компьютере.
  2. В правом верхнем углу страницы нажмите на значок Настройки.
  3. В нижней части страницы выберите Показать дополнительные настройки.
  4. В разделе “Языки” нажмите Изменить языковые настройки.
  5. Включите или отключите параметр Предлагать перевод страниц, если их язык отличается от используемого в браузере.

Выполните следующие действия:

  1. Запустите браузер Chrome на компьютере.
  2. В правом верхнем углу страницы нажмите на значок Настройки.
  3. В нижней части страницы выберите Показать дополнительные настройки.
  4. В разделе “Языки” нажмите Изменить языковые настройки.
  5. Рядом с названием нужного языка выберите значок .
    • Если нужного языка нет в списке, воспользуйтесь кнопкой Добавить.
  6. Включите или отключите параметр Предлагать перевести страницы на этом языке.

Как изменить язык интерфейса Chrome (только для Windows и Chromebook)

Вы можете настроить Chrome таким образом, чтобы все меню и настройки отображались на нужном вам языке. Эта функция доступна только для операционных систем Windows и устройств Chromebook.

Mac или Linux. Chrome будет автоматически работать на языке, который используется в данной системе по умолчанию.

  1. Запустите браузер Chrome на компьютере.
  2. В правом верхнем углу страницы нажмите на значок Настройки.
  3. В нижней части страницы выберите Показать дополнительные настройки.
  4. В разделе “Языки” нажмите Изменить языковые настройки.
  5. Рядом с названием нужного языка выберите значок .
    • Если нужного языка нет в списке, воспользуйтесь кнопкой Добавить.
  6. Нажмите Отображать Google Chrome на этом языке. Эта функция доступна только для операционных систем Windows и устройств Chromebook.
  7. Перезапустите Chrome, чтобы применить изменения.

Как писать на неподдерживаемом языке

Если вам нужно написать что-то на языке, который не поддерживается вашим компьютером, воспользуйтесь расширением Способы ввода текста.

Чтобы вводить текст на восточноазиатских и других языках со сложным письмом, пользователям Windows, возможно, потребуется установить шрифты на компьютер.


Tour – Stack Overflow, are you the answer.#Are #you #the #answer


Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

Are you the answer

2 Answers

Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

Are you the answer

Apple has announced that Swift apps will be backward compatible with iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks. The WWDC app is written in Swift.

Get answers to practical, detailed questions

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Click any tag to see a list of questions with that tag, or go to the tag list to browse for topics that interest you.

Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

Are you the answer

You earn reputation when people vote on your posts

Your reputation score goes up when others vote up your questions, answers and edits.

As you earn reputation, you ll unlock new privileges like the ability to vote, comment, and even edit other people s posts.

At the highest levels, you ll have access to special moderation tools. You ll be able to work alongside our community moderators to keep the site focused and helpful.

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Our goal is to have the best answers to every question, so if you see questions or answers that can be improved, you can edit them.

Use edits to fix mistakes, improve formatting, or clarify the meaning of a post.

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Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

Are you the answer


EQUIP, Christian Articles, Bible Answer Man, CRI, are you the answer.#Are #you


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From the Complete Bible Answer Book

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Is the Allah of Islam the God of the Bible? Long before Muhammad was born, Arabic Christians already were referring to God as Allah—and millions continue to do so today. The Allah of Islam, however, is definitely not the God of the Bible. For while Muslims passionately defend the unity of God, they patently deny [ ]

Hank Hanegraaff

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Why is the Sky Blue, are you the answer.#Are #you #the #answer


Why is the Sky Blue?

by Science Made Simple

Why is the Sky Blue?

On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red?

To answer these questions, we must learn about light, and the Earth’s atmosphere.

MIT used parts of this article in their online class!

Table of Contents

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the mixture of gas molecules and other materials surrounding the earth. It is made mostly of the gases nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%). Argon gas and water (in the form of vapor, droplets and ice crystals) are the next most common things. There are also small amounts of other gases, plus many small solid particles, like dust, soot and ashes, pollen, and salt from the oceans.

The composition of the atmosphere varies, depending on your location, the weather, and many other things. There may be more water in the air after a rainstorm, or near the ocean. Volcanoes can put large amounts of dust particles high into the atmosphere. Pollution can add different gases or dust and soot.

The atmosphere is densest (thickest) at the bottom, near the Earth. It gradually thins out as you go higher and higher up. There is no sharp break between the atmosphere and space. Learn more about the atmosphere.

Light Waves

Light is a kind of energy that radiates, or travels, in waves. Many different kinds of energy travel in waves. For example, sound is a wave of vibrating air. Light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields.

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It is one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields. This range is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetic waves travel through space at 299,792 km/sec (186,282 miles/sec). This is called the speed of light.

The energy of the radiation depends on its wavelength and frequency. Wavelength is the distance between the tops (crests) of the waves. Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. The longer the wavelength of the light, the lower the frequency, and the less energy it contains.

Colors of Light

Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see. Light from the sun or a light bulb may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colors. We can see the different colors of the spectrum by splitting the light with a prism. Are you the answer

The spectrum is also visible when you see a rainbow in the sky.

The colors blend continuously into one another. At one end of the spectrum are the reds and oranges. These gradually shade into yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colors have different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. Violet has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. That means it has the highest frequency and energy. Red has the longest wavelength, and lowest frequency and energy.

Light in the Air

Light travels through space in a straight line as long as nothing disturbs it. As light moves through the atmosphere, it continues to go straight until it bumps into a bit of dust or a gas molecule. Then what happens to the light depends on its wave length and the size of the thing it hits.

Dust particles and water droplets are much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light hits these large particles, it gets reflected, or bounced off, in different directions. The different colors of light are all reflected by the particle in the same way. The reflected light appears white because it still contains all of the same colors.

Gas molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If light bumps into them, it acts differently. When light hits a gas molecule, some of it may get absorbed. After awhile, the molecule radiates (releases, or gives off) the light in a different direction. The color that is radiated is the same color that was absorbed. The different colors of light are affected differently. All of the colors can be absorbed. But the higher frequencies (blues) are absorbed more often than the lower frequencies (reds). This process is called Rayleigh scattering. (It is named after Lord John Rayleigh, an English physicist, who first described it in the 1870’s.)

Why is the Sky Blue?

The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Are you the answerAs light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air.

However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue.

As you look closer to the horizon, the sky appears much paler in color. To reach you, the scattered blue light must pass through more air. Some of it gets scattered away again in other directions. Less blue light reaches your eyes. The color of the sky near the horizon appears paler or white.

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Why is Space Black? Why is the Sunset Red?

On Earth, the sun appears yellow. But what if you were out in space? What color would it be?

Get more great science articles each month with the


Excel Workbook – Automatic Goal Seek, are you the answer.#Are #you #the


Excel Workbook

This article demonstrates a simple VBA method to utilize the Goal Seek tool automatically, similar to a native Excel formula.

Goal Seek is an Excel built-in tool that uses numeric approximation methods to back solve for an input value to a system of formulas when given a desired output value. If you are not familiar with Goal Seek , many tutorials online can guide you to using this tool. I hate it, and try to avoid it at all costs but like everything else that I hate, there come times when I just have to face it like a man.

The problem? For one, it s not transparent, and we can t exactly tell what Excel did in the background. But more importantly, it s a pain to apply and to udpate. While all other formulas can automatically re-calculate upon changes to the input values, Goal Seek requires you to click on the menu to bring up the dialog box, then fill out three input boxes manually.

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See the spreadsheet above. Everything in blue are input values to this dynamic model, which can affect the results. We want to set E14 to a value specified in D3 , so these two cells correspond to the first two parameters of Goal Seek ( Set cell and To value ). As an alternative, we put the difference between the two in F6 , and set this cell to 0 (x=y is equivalent to x-y=0). This approach will slightly simplify the coding later on, and is an easier check for the user.

The Necessary Adjustment in D6 plays an accomondating role in adjusting each of the values so that the final calculation reaches target. For Goal Seek , it is the third parameter By changing cell . Initially we have no idea what this adjustment should be, and leave it at 0. At this time, F6 is showing 0.8%, indicating that the necessary criteria haven t been fulfilled.

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Let s do a Goal Seek now set F6 to 0 by changing D6 . If you record this into a macro, say Macro1, you can quickly repeat it by using an assigned shortcut key stroke, or hook it up with a command button for an easy UI. A lot of people do exactly this as an enhancement to the otherwise awkward model, but it s not good enough. Let s automate it.

Press Ctrl+F11 to bring up the Visual Basic Editor to see the embedding code to Macro1, and you ll see this line of code:

Fair enough. It s almost in plain English, and shouldn t take an VBA expert to understand. The next step is to copy and paste this line out of Macro1, to somewhere more automatically executable.

Browse to Sheet1 under Microsoft Excel Objects . Either type or use the drop-down box to create the following VBA event:

Private Sub Worksheet_Calculate()

This subroutine will be called every time the calculate event is triggered on this worksheet. Depending on whether you set the calculation to Automatic or Manual in Tools- Options , this happens when any formula-based cell changes value to a new input value. The idea is to paste the Goal Seek code here so it will be called whenever F6 may change; however, let s keep it in a separate function for the sake of good programming practice:

Private Sub Worksheet_Calculate()

Private Sub CheckGoalSeek()

In the Visual Basic editor, it should look like this:

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Now give it a try! Change any of the blue input values and you ll see Goal Seek working by itself to come up with the new adjustment values. Awesome! We re done now in terms of automating a tedious task.

Note: Always save your work before you test out the macro. depending on the version of your Excel, the repetitive call to Goal Seek may result in a run-time error. However, the next part of this code will solve the problem.

Have you noticed how slow this enhancement has made your model? Maybe not, if you have a relatively new computer or a small workbook like the sample file. But if you add some temporary debugging code to the function, you ll notice how many times your function is (unnecessarily) being triggered when you change any of the input values:

Private Sub CheckGoalSeek()

Give it another run and, hey:

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You just changed one input, and Goal Seek ran close to 2,000 times! Why.

The subroutine Worksheet_Calculate is triggered every time any function calculates a new value. There are six cells (in column E as well as cell F6 ) that depend on the changing cell D6 . As Goal Seek cycles through possible values as the input, all these six cells have to update and in turn call up more instances of Goal Seek .

Imagine you want to paint a wall red. Every time you see that the wall isn t entirely red, you call up a painter to do the job. As soon as the first painter gets to work, you realize that it s still not entirely red, so you call up another one. Even when you ve got 30 painters to simultaneously working on the wall (if that s physically possible), there might still be a white spot remaining and you make yet another phone call chances are, the job would be complete before the last five painters arrive on site. This algorithm gets the job done, but heck, is super inefficient. Add a little check to the process and avoid ever calling more than one painter!

Private Sub CheckGoalSeek()

Static isWorking As Boolean

If Round(Range( F6 ).Value, 6) 0 And Not isWorking Then

Adding in the static variable helps flagging whether the Goal Seek function has been employed. The first time this function is called, it raises the flag and will not release it until the full iteration of Goal Seek completes. During this time, this subroutine would still be called 2,000 instances, but it would simply bypass all the code and exit. Try again and F3 increments only once per change of input values, indicating that the Goal Seek isn t running wild to waste your computer s resources. That s what we wanted, and now we can remove that debugging code.

The first part of the If statement checks whether the solution already exists i.e. if Worksheet_Calculate is being triggered by some formula updates that are completely irrelevant to this system. If so, there s no need to call Goal Seek at all.

Here s another catch: if you want a robust model, you ve gotta consider any potential for error. How about an invalid input value? Keeping the target overall raise at 5% and changing the max raise to 0% is for sure an impossible scenario, and Goal Seek goes crazy as follows:

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We realize that wasn t very smart and change the max back to 6% and geez it doesn t work! The adjustment factor had been thrown too far off anything reasonable, and now Goal Seek doesn t know what to do with such an awkward initial guess. Our model is stuck, and that ain t cool. A quick way to fix this is to reset the initial guess every time we call Goal Seek:

Private Sub CheckGoalSeek()

Static isWorking As Boolean

If Round(Range( F6 ).Value, 6) 0 And Not isWorking Then

It s a slight waste of resources if educated and reasonable input values can be expected at all times, but definitely a worthy investment if you want to prevent ever getting stuck .

Lastly, it s dangerous to use absolute cell references in macros. If columns or rows are added or removed, the key cells would have changed locations (from D6 to D7 , for example) and the macro will get confused! The best practice is to name the cells and refer to them by name, like the following:

Private Sub CheckGoalSeek()

Static isWorking As Boolean

If Round(Range( GoalSeekCell ).Value, 6) 0 And Not isWorking Then

Range( ByChangingCell ).Value = 0

Range( GoalSeekCell ).GoalSeek Goal:=0, ChangingCell:=.Range( ByChangingCell )

Now we have a robust macro that automatically updates Goal Seek ! Enjoy!