Hypnotherapy – Hypnosis #hypnotherapy, #hypnosis, #mental #health, #psychotherapy, #mental #illness, #trance, #therapy,


Mental Health and Hypnosis

Hypnosis — or hypnotherapy — uses guided relaxation, intense concentration, and focused attention to achieve a heightened state of awareness that is sometimes called a trance. The person’s attention is so focused while in this state that anything going on around the person is temporarily blocked out or ignored. In this naturally occurring state, a person may focus his or her attention — with the help of a trained therapist — on specific thoughts or tasks.

How Does Hypnosis Work?

Hypnosis is usually considered an aid to psychotherapy (counseling or therapy), because the hypnotic state allows people to explore painful thoughts, feelings, and memories they might have hidden from their conscious minds. In addition, hypnosis enables people to perceive some things differently, such as blocking an awareness of pain.

Hypnosis can be used in two ways, as suggestion therapy or for patient analysis.

  • Suggestion therapy: The hypnotic state makes the person better able to respond to suggestions. Therefore, hypnotherapy can help some people change certain behaviors, such as stopping smoking or nail biting. It can also help people change perceptions and sensations, and is particularly useful in treating pain .
  • Analysis: This approach uses the relaxed state to explore a possible psychological root cause of a disorder or symptom, such as a traumatic past event that a person has hidden in his or her unconscious memory. Once the trauma is revealed, it can be addressed in psychotherapy .

What Are the Benefits of Hypnosis?

The hypnotic state allows a person to be more open to discussion and suggestion. It can improve the success of other treatments for many conditions, including:

Hypnosis also might be used to help with pain control and to overcome habits, such as smoking or overeating. It also might be helpful for people whose symptoms are severe or who need crisis management.

What Are the Drawbacks of Hypnosis?

Hypnosis might not be appropriate for a person who has psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. or for someone who is using drugs or alcohol. It should be used for pain control only after a doctor has evaluated the person for any physical disorder that might require medical or surgical treatment. Hypnosis also may be a less effective form of therapy than other more traditional treatments, such as medication. for psychiatric disorders.

Some therapists use hypnosis to recover possibly repressed memories they believe are linked to the person’s mental disorder. However, the quality and reliability of information recalled by the patient under hypnosis is not always reliable. Additionally, hypnosis can pose a risk of creating false memories — usually as a result of unintended suggestions or the asking of leading questions by the therapist. For these reasons, hypnosis is no longer considered a common or mainstream part of most forms of psychotherapy. Also, the use of hypnosis for certain mental disorders in which patients may be highly susceptible to suggestion, such as dissociative disorders, remains especially controversial.


Is Hypnosis Dangerous?

Hypnosis is not a dangerous procedure. It is not mind control or brainwashing. A therapist cannot make a person do something embarrassing or that the person doesn’t want to do. The greatest risk, as discussed above, is that false memories can potentially be created and that it may be less effective than pursuing other, more established and traditional psychiatric treatments.

Who Performs Hypnosis?

Hypnosis is performed by a licensed or certified mental health professional who is specially trained in this technique.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Joseph Goldberg, MD on July 30, 2016

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Asthma and Secondhand Smoke #smoking, #asthma, #asthma #treatment, #tobacco, #asthma #prevention, #diseases,


Asthma and Secondhand Smoke

What Is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the airways of the lungs. During an asthma attack, airways (tubes that carry air to your lungs) become swollen, making it hard to breathe. 1, 2 As the walls of the airways swell, they narrow, and less air gets in and out of the lungs. Cells in the airways can make more mucus (a sticky, thick liquid) than usual, which can make breathing even harder. 2

Symptoms of an asthma attack include: 1

  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Wheezing
  • Tightness or pain in the chest

Asthma attacks can be mild, moderate, or serious and even life threatening. 1

How Is Smoking Related to Asthma?

If you have asthma, an asthma attack can occur when something irritates your airways and triggers an attack. Your triggers might be different from other people s triggers. 3

Tobacco smoke is one of the most common asthma triggers. Tobacco smoke including secondhand smoke is unhealthy for everyone, especially people with asthma. 3 Secondhand smoke is a mixture of gases and fine particles that includes: 4

  • Smoke from a burning cigarette, cigar, or pipe tip
  • Smoke that has been exhaled (breathed out) by someone who smokes

Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals, including hundreds that are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. 5

If you have asthma, it s important that you avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. 3

If you are among the 21% of U.S. adults who have asthma and smoke, quit smoking. 6

How Can Asthma Attacks Be Prevented?

If you or a family member has asthma, you can manage it with the help of your health care provider (for example, by taking your medicines exactly as your doctor tells you) and by avoiding triggers. Staying far away from tobacco smoke is one important way to avoid asthma attacks. Some other helpful tips are:

  • Do not smoke or allow others to smoke in your home or car. Opening a window does not protect you from smoke. 5
  • If your state still allows smoking in public areas, look for restaurants and other places that do not allow smoking. No-smoking sections in the same restaurant with smoking sections do not protect adequately from secondhand smoke 5 even if there is a filter or ventilation system. 7
  • Make sure your children s day care centers and schools are tobacco-free. For schools, a tobacco-free campus policy means no tobacco use or advertising on school property is allowed by anyone at any time. This includes off-campus school events. 5
  • Teach children to stay away from secondhand smoke. Be a good role model by not smoking. 5

How Is Asthma Treated?

There is no cure for asthma. However, to help control your asthma and avoid attacks: 2

  • Take your medicine exactly as your doctor tells you.
  • Stay away from things that can trigger an attack.

Everyone with asthma does not take the same medicine. Some medicines can be breathed in, and some can be taken as a pill. There are two kinds of asthma medicines 2

  • Quick-relief (can help control symptoms of an asthma attack)
  • Long-term control (can help you have fewer and milder attacks, but they don t help you while you are having an asthma attack)


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma s Impact on the Nation: Data From the CDC National Asthma Control Program [PDF – 531.18KB] [accessed 2014 May 5].
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma: Basic Information [last updated 2012 Aug 3; accessed 2014 May 5].
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma: Common Asthma Triggers [last updated 2012 Aug 20; accessed 2014 May 5].
  4. National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program, 2011.
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2014 May 5].
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma Stats: Percentage of People With Asthma Who Smoke [last updated 2013 Jan 31; accessed 2014 May 5].
  7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006 [accessed 2014 May 5].

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