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About Barber Exam Total Access:

Our online barbering practice exams are designed to help barbering students and graduates; apprentices in a barbering apprenticeship; barbers moving to a new state in the U.S., and those needing a refresher course in barber theory – to prepare for the written state board barber licensing exam. Once you have purchased Total Access to our exam service, you will be able to practice from any one or all of the exams for as many attempts as you need to improve your knowledge and memory. Questions are randomized every time you start an exam and you can retake any exam in Total Access as many times as you need to. Total Access does not expire, while most of our competitor’s practice exams will. All of the exams available in the barbering Total Access online exams work with smart phones, tablets and computers (yes – Andriod, Windows and Apple iPhones, iPads) are explained below:

To assist in increasing your knowledge in subjects you may have struggled in, we recommend you take any of the Focus Exams. These exams focus on the indicated subject matter. They will not be timed, and will show you whether you have chosen the correct answer or the incorrect answer immediately. If you choose an incorrect answer, in one of these exams, you will be able to view the correct answer immediately. Each and every test will randomize the questions and answers when it is retaken. The Focus Exams are listed here: (1) Anatomy & Physiology 1 – 77 questions (2) Anatomy & Physiology 2 – 78 questions (3) Bacteriology/Microbiology – 62 questions (4) Chemical Texture Services – 87 questions (5) Chemistry – 119 questions (6) Consultation, Shampooing, Draping & Hair & Scalp Treatments – 77 questions (7) Electricity & Light – 60 questions (8) Facial Treatments – 67 questions (9) Hair Color & Lightener – 91 questions (10) Hair Cutting, Styling & Design – 106 questions (11) Hair & Scalp Anatomy & Disorders – 101 questions (12) Hairpieces & Extensions – 53 questions (13) Infection Control & Safety Practices – 81 questions (14) Shaving & Facial Hair Design – 50 questions (15) Skin Histology – 107 questions (16) Tools, Implements & Equipment – 65 questions. These are all available to you through the purchased Total Access page. And a downloadable and printable eBook with all the focus exams questions and answers can be purchased for $25.99 at Barber eBook.

We strongly recommend you take one of the 5 Timed Exams. These are designed to simulate a state board exam as much as possible. No one knows what the exact questions will be on your state board exam – so it is imperative to study all of your subjects and make good use of the different types of exams available to you here. The purpose of the timed exams is to simulate the pressure of completing the state board exam accurately and in plenty of time. Once the exam is complete you will see your statistics: how long it took to complete, the number of questions you answered correctly and whether you passed or failed. If you passed then you can choose to review all of your answers. If you failed, you will be prompted to take the exam again. If you need to review a test you are taking before finishing the last question, you can by clicking the icon in the upper left corner of the exam (this comes in handy when you see your are not going to pass but you want to review your answers instead of taking the exam again). These are all available to you through the purchased Total Access page.

The Power Exams have 250 questions each. There are 3 Power Exams available. Power Exam 1 Subjects: Chemistry, Client Consultation, Draping, Hair & Scalp Treatments, Electricity & Light, Infection Control & Safety Practices, Tools, Implements & Equipment; Power Exam 2 Subjects: Chemical Texture Services, Facial Treatments, Hair Color & Lightener, Hair Cutting, Styling & Design, Hairpieces, Shaving; Power Exam 3 Subjects: Subjects: Anatomy & Physiology, Bacteriology, Hair & Scalp Anatomy, Hair Disorders, Skin Histology

The Grand Exams have 500 questions each. There are 3 Grand Exams available. These are not timed. Passing one of these exams not only increases your memory and knowledge, but also your confidence. If you had any doubts in your ability to pass a written state board exam – you can overcome those doubts by passing at least one of the Grand Exams. You will be able to review the outline of the test as you take it, and also review the entire exam once it has been passed. These are all available to you through the purchased Total Access page.

Cosmetology, Esthetician, Manicurist and Braiding Tests

FREE Questions and Answers. Unlimited Attempts. Feedback given each time you submit an answer! Review answers as you take a test.

Why should you purchase the online barbering exam service in order to prepare for your state board exam?

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Nclex RN exam prep test questions FREE Nclex testing online prep –


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NCLEX Ready? Try our FREE Quizzes.

The NCLEX exam is a CAT exam or Computerized Adaptive Testing instrument.

The goal of Computerized Adaptive Testing or CAT, is to determine your nursing competence, based on the LEVEL OF

DIFFICULTY of questions you can answer correctly, AND NOT ON ONLY how many questions you can answer correctly.

NCLEX CAT examinations are individualized measures; each question and answer given to the exam taker and draws a score based

on level of difficulty

Over 3,000 questions in the pool are standardized by thousands of candidates every three years, then statistically analyzed

or compared carefully to find the average difficulty where most exam takers can pass or fail. Only 265 questions are given

to each exam taker. The NCLEX CAT may make a decision on or about the 60th question.

NCLEX From Easy to Hard Questions

All questions from easy to hard; there will come a point where you go from getting more right to getting more wrong.

It s part of the testing plan. Do not worry. This is the point where you are answering 50% correctly and 50% incorrectly.

It s part of the testing plan.

NCLEX is power based instrument, but also a speed test in a sense because it has a time limit of five hours or so.

Plenty of time for 60 or so questions.

Everybody Fails the Hardest Questions

Questions harder than those standardized, will not probably answered correctly by most recently grad nurses.

Nursing experts could probably answer at least one-half of the hardest questions we could ask.

NCLEX Your Competence Level Tested

Your competence level is related to the difficulty level of the questions at the point where you can answer half of the

questions correctly. The goal of CAT is to find that point for you. Your nursing competence level as an entrant to

nursing practice. As exam takers continue answering correctly, the questions get harder and harder.

That point represents your competence level.

NCLEX The 60 questions CAT Pass or Fail ruling

After you have answered the minimum number of questions (about 60 or more ), the computer compares your

competence level to the passing standardized level and makes one of three decisions: (scores are NOT given)

NCLEX No point asking more when know or don t know the answers

If you can NOT answer the easy questions correctly, the CAT see no point in wasting time giving you out a lot of

difficult questions. In fact, the computer often could make a decision after giving you less than the minimum of 60

questions, but 60 questions are necessary to cover the NCLEX Test Plan.

Some NCLEX exam takers competence level is very close to the passing standard. For some of these people, all 265

questions in the item pool still might not be enought to make it clear whether they should pass or fail.

These are the people who take the maximum number of questions. The CAT need to determine their competence level.

NCLEX Do not skip or return to questions answered

You are not allowed to skip questions or go back to review or change previous answers; the CAT methodology adaptive

branching makes skipping or revising earlier answers logically invalid. Once an answer is recorded, all subsequent questions

administered depend, to some degree, on previous responses used to increase difficulty level for questions ahead.

If you answered incorrectly, the next question presented to you will be easier, withing your level of difficulty, making it

more likely you will answer correctly. Each question is selected randomly from the item pool and any similarity between

items is a coincidence.

Test anxiety is indeed a problem for many people. NCLEX CAT removes test anxiety. Candidate may test on the time

and day of their choice, and pace. Considering the NCLEX makes a decision at about 60 questions and average question

time is 2 and 30 seconds; there is plenty of time in 5 hours to do a test of about 60 questions.

The sample questions give you an opportunity to remove anxiety by helping you adapt to the testing situation and to

practice with the necessary keyboard strokes. The first 10 real questions do not count towards your score.

Nursing Psychiatry questions are failed by a great number of exam takers, both national and international nurses.

Review your psychiatric nurisng. You may see from 12 to 16 questions only, but this section accounts for about 14%

of the total questions on the test. Visit the links on this website for a full review of Nursing Psychiatry.

Learn about symptoms, signs, medications and intervention in psych nursing.

NCLEX Safety and Effective Intervention

All your correct answers are based on a safe and effective intervention, whether in non-psych nursing or

psych nurisng or any other specialty.

NCLEX name is register mark/brand name by the National Council of State of Board Nursing.

and its Capitals

Delaware RN NCLEX

Pennsylvania RN NCLEX

Pennsylvania RN NCLEX

New Jersey RN NCLEX

Georgia RN NCLEX

Atlanta RN NCLEX

Connecticut RN NCLEX

Hartford RN NCLEX

Massachusetts RN NCLEX

Boston RN NCLEX

Maryland RN NCLEX

Annapolis RN NCLEX

Nclex Masters counter restarted at 335,000 Oct. 2013.

Add figures to visible count now for visitors update tally.

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On average about 2/3 of all foreign educated nurses PASS the NCLEX and under 1/3 FAIL per information from USA National Council of State Boards of Nursing.

A common section usually failed by many nurses is the section for Psychiatric nursing which total about 12 questions.

NCLEX RN exam takers may include nurses from Filipinas, India, China, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Chilea, Uruguay, Bahamas, Curacao, Trinidad Tobago, Virgin Islands, Peru, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala. Salvador, Bolivia, Hawaii, Ecuador,Argentina, Africa, South America, Mexico, Mejico, Canada, Middle East, Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Costa Rica, Philippines, Manila, Pinoy Nurses, Korea, Israel, Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, Jordan.

NCLEX Russia, Japan, Spain, England, Australia, Belize, Poland nurses, Filipino,Panama, Grenadines, Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba, Canada, Bahamas, St Martin, Trinidad Tobago, Ecuador,Suriname,Australia, GN s from USA, California, Florida, Texas, Georgia, Tennesse, Kentucky, Illinois, New York, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, wyoming, Montana, Dakota, Missouri, Mississipi.

NCLEX Alabama, Nebraska,Kansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Michigan, Indiana, Colorado, Arizona,Massachusett, New Hampshire, Delaware, Washington, Minessotta, as a sample of exam takers internationally.

NCLEX Algeria, Benin, Cameroon, Cote d Ivoire, Eritrea, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Madagascar Maldives Mali Mauritius Morocco Nigeria Senegal Somalia South Africa Tanzania, United Republic of TogoTunisia Uganda Zimbabwe Afghanistan Bangladesh.

NCLEX China India Indonesia Japan Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Viet Nam Albania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova,Republic of Netherlands (Holland)

NCLEX Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Uzbekistan Yugoslavia Bahrain Egypt Iran Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates Yemen Antigua and Barbuda Canada Dominican Republic Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Trinidad and Tobago United States Australia Fiji New Zealand Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Peru Uruguay Venezuela Ethiopia.

NCLEX fermeras, enfermeria, nurses, registeres nurses, RN, and others nursing professionals. LPN, RNP, RN, CNA, NICU, PACU, MED SURGE, PICC, ICU, CCU, Nurses.


Frequently asked questions, computer questions answered free.#Computer #questions #answered #free


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We advise you to get in touch with your mobile phone provider to double check their rates to our access numbers (for mobile operator customer services click here).

Once the negotiated special deal comes to an end we will also have to change the access number back to its original price.

To ensure you are always calling the cheapest access number possible, simply sign up for our free newsletter.

Sometimes it could happen we send free messages about special actions to our customers.

But we only do this when changes at the side of a (mobile) operator has great impacts for our customers.

If you don’t want to be informed in cases like this, please feel free to opt-out by sending a mail to our customer service via the website.

We advise you to get in touch with your service provider to protest your bill (for customer services telephone numbers please click here). Should your service provider not settle the issue satisfactorily please contact Ofcom on 0845 456 3000.

However if you are abroad with your mobile (i.e. not in the country the mobile number originates from) your mobile provider will charge you for receiving calls whilst abroad also known as roaming charges. For more information please contact your mobile provider.

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For Telewest charges prices please visit the Telewest website.

When you call a destination via Telediscount from a landline, your landline provider does not know the international number you are calling via Telediscount, your landline provider can only show you the Telediscount access number you have called. As the international number has appeared on your landline providers bill, this suggests that the call was made via your normal landline provider and not via Telediscount. So next time you make an international call, remember to dial the Telediscount access number before you dial the international telephone number.


3 Common Questions about T-Shirt Design – Copyright Law Answered – The


Kunvay

Learn how to navigate copyright and intellectual property ownership smartly so you own your work, and own your future.

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Photo Credit: 8 by Mico Samardzija used under CC BY-NC 2.0

Summer is coming again and our thoughts inevitably turn to rounding up the usual suspects, a bunch of t-shirts, some cutoffs and a pair of sandals.

No more grabbing vintage tee collectables at the local resale store, this year is going to be different, this is the year you silk screen your own t-shirts.

How about a huge, green, Irish triskele, triple spiral, on a velvet black t-shirt or a banana yellow hibiscus printed over an ocean blue tee?

No question, there are millions of graphic possibilities but coming up with a creative vision that won’t step on someone else’s copyright for some reason invokes a measure of creative block.

No worries; get the screen printing inks ready. We’ll take a look at the questions, sort out some answers and you’ll be cranking out t-shirts in no time.

1. Can I print any design on a t-shirt legally?

There are two “bear-trap” words in this question and those are “any” and “legally.”

The answer to this very general question is wholly dependent on facts and circumstances left forever unstated.

There is no way to effectively answer without discerning surrounding facts such as what design, who was the original author or designer of the image, is the t-shirt product limited to personal use or will it be produced for general marketing purposes.

However, that said, we can respond with an overview of some general copyright principals that may apply in most t-shirt situations.

Many symbols that an artist might like to reproduce on a t-shirt have fallen into the category of known as the “public domain.”

A typeface, or a set of letters and related symbols, is not protected under most copyright law.

Most common symbols, such as the Irish triskele I mentioned earlier, are also not protected by copyright law and have entered the public domain.

There are also countless symbols and graphic images that were once copyright protected but the copyright has been allowed to expire or been forfeited for some reason and these have entered the public domain.

Material determined to be within the public domain is free for the general public to use, copy and market in any way and on any terms.

But wait a minute, can’t an artist take a symbol or an image out of the public domain and bring it back to a copyrighted or copyrightable status?

Yes, all it takes is to use a public domain symbol or image in a new, completely original work and the new image, which includes the public domain symbol, is copyrightable. Shark, just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water.

The long and short of this is that if you plan to market those “Freddy’s Fabulous Falafel” t-shirts you need to do the research to make sure the typeface and symbols you want to use are either your own original designs or unencumbered residents of the public domain.

(b) Request Permission or Licensing

Copyrighting an original design for your t-shirts is the safest and easiest method of staying out of any sort of copyright quick mud should your tees suddenly become this summer’s Internet darling.

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Confused about t-shirt copyright? Get a FREE chapter from the T-Shirt Copyright Handbook by clicking the book cover above.

However, if graphic art is not your profession then using a copyrighted graphic image with a license, or permission from the original artist or author, is fairly simple to arrange.

Simply contact the original copyright owner and ask to use or license their work.

You may find they not only allow you to use their work but that permission is given at little or no cost.

In contrast, serious legal issues can be invoked when the graphic image you have chosen to use on your t-shirt is already in use by an individual or entity as a trademark or service mark, either registered or just used in commerce for a number of years in a particular region.

Obviously, if you do not plan to market the t-shirts and just plan to wear the one you printed to the beach then you need not worry about allegations of trademark dilution or copyright infringement.

However, if you do plan to market the t-shirts or have all your team members wearing it in a video that will be marketed, then again, you need to contact the registered owner of the mark and request their permission to use the mark.

Always get the permission terms in writing just in case minds change later on when your t-shirt team plays in the world series.

2) Can I make a t-shirt related to a movie or TV series? What s allowed? What s not?

A person that bought a copy of a movie, TV series or computer game would be allowed under the legal concept “fair use” to take a still from that copyrighted work and use it on a t-shirt to be worn by himself or a family member.

The trouble starts when everybody in the neighborhood wants one of those great white shark tees and making a few extra bucks starts to loom in the minds of the tee creator.

No, you may not use “fair use copyright principals as legal protection when you effectively go into competition with the copyright owner by marketing the copyrighted image or images on your t-shirts.

Do this and you will get “the letter” inviting you to appear in a federal court in response to allegations of copyright infringement and civil damages.

Always play fair, if you have a great idea for a t-shirt that involves the use of an image from a copyrighted movie, TV show or computer game and you think the product would market well then contact the copyright owner, and ask to have, or buy, a limited permission to use the image on your t-shirts.

The company or artists may be very interested in working with you. In most instances the rightful copyright owner and the licensee both benefit from the co-operative marketing of fashionable t-shirts within the garment industry.

3) How can I capture pop culture themes in my t-shirt designs without violating someone else s copyrights?

This question puts me in mind of that cool graphic entitled, “Rage the Flower Thrower by Banksy.” The “Banksy” image is used in all sorts of ways including stenciled on t-shirts because it captures a cultural theme that resonates strongly with many people.

First, and foremost, try to create your own unique image that brings a voice to your views on the local culture or on the world.

But if you are not a visual artist, and for example, you want to use “Rage the Flower Thrower” on your t-shirt(s) then the first step is to determine if the image is copyrighted, who the copyright owner is, and if the copyright remains in effect.

Banksy was an anonymous and notorious British graffiti artist. No copyright attached to his work because nobody knew his identity. Another similar scenario is where the original copyright owner has passed away and the estate failed to comply with copyright extension requirements.

In both situations the copyrighted or “copyrightable” material has entered the public domain. They have become images that may be used freely on any t-shirt project.

All in all there are many copyright facets to consider when designing a t-shirt especially when the project manager has a dream of ultimately marketing the shirts.

Check out this comprehensive resource to get additional information about t-shirt copyright.

And feel free to send me one of those black t-shirts with the triple green spiral on it.

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About the Author: Christine Varad is the principal writer and editor for Varacolors Media. She earned her JD in law from New England Law and holds a BFA from Massachusetts College of Art and Design. As an artist and a lawyer she has a long standing interest in Intellectual Property law and promoting the rights and interests of writers and visual and performing artists.


White Town – Your Questions Answered, computer questions answered free.#Computer #questions #answered


Your Questions Answered!

I love ‘Your Woman’ *BUT* what is it about. Are you a man/woman/transsexual?

Ummmm…well, that’s a toughie. When I wrote it, I was trying to write a pop song that had more than one perspective. Although it’s written in the first person the character behind that viewpoint isn’t necessarily what the casual listener would expect. I d been reading a lot of Wilhelm Reich and Andrea Dworkin and they both influenced the lyrics in different ways. Yes, I m a geek.

So, these are *some* of the things it’s about:

  • Being a member of an orthodox Trotskyist / Marxist movement (as I was for three years in the 80s).
  • Being a straight guy in love with a lesbian (ditto).
  • Being a gay guy in love with a straight man (not tried this one yet).
  • Being a straight girl in love with a lying, two-timing, fake-ass Marxist.
  • The hypocrisy that results when love and lust get mixed up with highbrow ideals Computer questions answered free

    The last time I checked I was male. But as for gender….that’s another kettle of fish Computer questions answered free

    Well, not so far But I don’t actually believe that humans are bi, hetero *or* homosexual.

    We’re just sexual. We re very like our horny cousin, the bonobo.

    So that means that I’m very *pro* gay rights because I consider freedom of sexual expression to be a basic human right.

    Who directed the video? Who are those gorgeous actors in it? Where was it filmed?

    The video was directed by Mark Adcock, I only know the name of one actress, Chloe Treend. And, yep, I had chats with Mark about the aesthetic, we were both reading the same kind of stuff at the time! Computer questions answered freeThe video was filmed around Derby, UK, my hometown.

    Mark also directed the video for Undressed, which was shot at Marble Arch in London.

    White Town is just me, Jyoti.

    I *do* want to play live but I currently have no live incarnation.

    Plus how do I do it? Watching a fat bloke prod a synth and peer at a laptop isn t exactly high drama, is it?

    I have plans this year (2005) to play live again so watch this space!

    Yep, White Town played in Sweden in 2005. Details here!

    Well, I m gigging pretty regularly now and played Paris this year, New York Popfest last year, Athens, Thessaloniki I love it! Computer questions answered free

    Where is that sample from? Is it from Star Wars?

    No. I’m a big fan of 20s and 30s pop music.

    Years ago, I saw an English TV series called ‘Pennies From Heaven’ written by Dennis Potter.

    On the soundtrack CD set from that series was a song called ‘My Woman’ which was recorded in 1932 by Lew Stone and The Monseigneur Band. The trumpet riff I sampled was played by Nat Gonella.

    I would recommend *anyone* who likes pop muisc to search out 20s and 30s compilations. It was all downhill from there! Computer questions answered free

    The verse and chorus is:

    The well I guess what they say is true bit goes:

    And that s all it is! I don t know why the tabs I ve found over-complicate it all so much. Computer questions answered free

    Where are you from? Why are you called White Town?

    1. I’m Indian. I was born there and we emigrated to Britain when I was three years old, in 1969

    I chose the name of the band to represent some of the experiences I had as a kid, growing up brown in predominantly white towns. As you may imagine, it wasn t exactly a barrel of laughs.

    2. I was also alluding to this bit of history:

    Around the forts the first signs of segregation were already apparent – the European and Indian communities lived in separate settlements with very distinct characters. In the case of Fort St. George, Madras, the main fortifications surrounded the warehouses and other military buildings, and the so-called ‘white town’ had another ring of fortification separating it from the ‘black town’.

    What gear did you use to record ‘Your Woman?’

    The gear I used was all pretty old and most of it was secondhand. The total value was just over £2000 (in 1997). This was it:

    * Tascam 688 Midistudio (8-tracks on cassette)

    * Atari 520STFM running Sequencer One (free prog off the front of ST Format magazine)

    * Emax II (Akais yeuchh)

    * Casio CZ101 (cost 50 pounds)

    * Crappy old electric guitar.

    That was also pretty much all I used for the whole of the album, although I did get enough money in early 97 to move to a digital 8-track (DA38) and get a beautiful Yamaha O2R mixer (swoon).

    My “studio” for Women In Technology was my spare bedroom which was approximately 9 feet square. With squeaky floorboards which you can hear on some of the vocal tracks Computer questions answered free

    *Dual-processor Apple Mac G5 (2GHz, 2gig RAM)

    *MOTU 24 I/O converters (three of these)

    After serious issues with Logic Pro s appalling MIDI timing and the fact that Apple don t give a crap about professional musicians, I ve gone back to hardware. Bye bye computer recording!

    From January 06, I ve been using:

    * Elektron Monomachine (currently, the best synth in the world)

    * Elektron Machindrum (ditto for drum machines)

    Plus various mics, synths, guitars etc.

    How do you feel about being a one-hit wonder?

    Better than being a no-hit wonder!

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  • When the sun goes dark: 5 questions answered about the solar eclipse,


    When the sun goes dark: 5 questions answered about the solar eclipse

    Posted August 11

    By Shannon Schmoll, Michigan State University

    A total solar eclipse will be visible across the U.S. on Monday, Aug. 21. Shannon Schmoll, director of the Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University, explains why and how it happens, and what we can learn from an eclipse.

    How do we know when an eclipse is going to happen? How do we know in advance where it will be visible?

    Solar eclipses happen when our view of the sun is blocked by the moon. When the moon lines up between the sun and Earth, the moon will cast a shadow onto Earth. This is what we on the ground observe as a solar eclipse.

    We know when they’ll happen because over centuries astronomers have measured very precisely the motions of the Earth, moon and sun, including their orbital shapes, how the orbits precess and other parameters. With those data about the moon – and similar information about the Earth’s orbit around the sun – we can make mathematical models of their movements in relation to each other. Using those equations, we can calculate tables of data that can predict what we will see on Earth, depending on location, during an eclipse as well as when they will happen and how long they last. (The next major solar eclipses over the U.S. will be in 2023 and 2024.)

    How often do eclipses happen?

    A solar eclipse happens, on average, a couple times a year. The moon passes between the Earth and sun every 29 days, a time we call the “new moon” – when the moon is not visible in Earth’s nighttime sky. However, the moon’s orbit and the sun’s path in our sky don’t match up exactly, so at most of those new moon events, the moon appears above or below the sun.

    Twice a year, though, there is a period where the moon and the sun line up with Earth – astronomers call this an eclipse season. It lasts about 34 days, long enough for the moon to complete a full orbit (and then some) of the Earth. During each eclipse season, there are at least two eclipses visible from some parts of the Earth. At the full moon, there will be a lunar eclipse, when the moon passes directly behind the Earth, resulting in a darker, reddish-colored moon. And at the new moon, there will be a solar eclipse, when the sun is blocked by the moon.

    Can we learn anything from eclipse events, or are they really just oddities that happen in nature?

    We can definitely learn things from eclipses. The outermost layer of the sun, known as the corona, is difficult to study because it’s less bright than the rest of the sun – so we have trouble seeing it amid the rest of the sun’s brightness.

    When the moon blocks the sun, we can see the corona, the famous visual of the halo of light around the dark disk of the moon. Currently astronomers study this by creating an artificial eclipse with a mask built into special instruments on telescopes called coronagraphs. This is great, but doesn’t allow the best pictures. Eclipses give scientists opportunities to get more data to study the corona in depth.

    We can also learn about Earth itself. In an area affected by an eclipse, the darkening of the sun leads to a sudden drop in temperature. NASA-funded studies during this eclipse will look at the effects from the eclipse on our atmosphere as well as what happens on land. Previous studies observed animal behavior during an eclipse in 2001 and noted some animals went through their night routines as the sun disappeared while others became nervous.

    And we can learn about the whole universe. Less than 100 years ago, an eclipse proved a prediction Albert Einstein had made about gravity. That success helped make him a household name. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein had predicted that gravity could bend the path of light. The effect he predicted was very slight, so it would best be viewed as the light passed a very large celestial body as part of its travels across a very long distance of space.

    Sir Arthur Eddington, an astronomer who helped further the study of general relativity and whose work is a major piece of our modern understanding of stars and black holes, used the darkness provided by a solar eclipse to look at the position of the stars’ light during the day, when it passed the sun. He then compared those positions to their known positions at night. He saw that the gravity of the sun had bent the path – exactly as, and in the precise amount that, Einstein had predicted.

    How weird is it that the moon can basically exactly block out the sun?

    It is very unusual that the moon and the sun just happen to be at the right distances and sizes to appear to have the same size in our sky. This allows the moon to perfectly block the sun’s disk, while also showing us the corona. Venus and Mercury, for instance, can also pass in front of the sun from our perspective. However, they appear as small specks moving across the sun.

    What would someone standing on the moon see happen on Earth? Would Earth get dark?

    If you were on the moon, you would be able to see the effects of the solar eclipse on Earth only if you were standing on the moon’s night side, the side facing the Earth. You would see a round shadow cast onto the Earth. This particular eclipse will first hit the Pacific Ocean, then move into Oregon, cross the U.S. to South Carolina and end in the Atlantic Ocean. This path the shadow takes is called the path of totality.

    This article was originally published on The Conversation, an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts.


    How to Get FREE HDTV (and All Your DTV Questions Answered): 5


    How to Get FREE HDTV (and All Your DTV Questions Answered)

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    How you can get free HDTV with higher quality than available on your cable or satellite provider.

    (Free after initial start-up costs, if you do not have an antenna already – generally, a complete setup can pay for itself in the cost of 2 months of cable or satellite)

    The only difference in broadcasting is the content of the signal and the decoding process.

    Partially true, but not for every circumstance. You can use your same TV to view digital TV, but if it is an older TV is will not be capable of displaying the true quality of an HD signal, and it will require a converter box (roughly $50). This would be like a digital cable box, or a vcr that does the current analogue decoding for you.

    If you own a new LCD/plasma TV, chances are it includes a digital tuner already (ATSC/DVB-t, depending on your location).

    Check its specs before you go looking for a converter box.

    (Note that some converter boxes are SD only, look for a converter box that outputs in HD if you have an HD ready tv)

    These terms are commonly mixed up.

    Digital TV is the same as the ordinary analogue broadcast television today, just in a different signal/processing format. (480i). Because of the superior nature of digital TV, you will get a perfect picture every time. (Or below a certain signal level, no picture at all. Much around the distance that analogue tv gets too fuzzy to watch)

    HDtv is also purely digital (perfect picture every time), however it can go up to much higher resolutions, such as 1280×720 progressive (720p) or 1920×1080 interleaved (1080i).

    1080i has roughly double the pixels of 720p, but half the framerate.

    Also, just because a channel is broadcasting at an HD resolution, does not mean the picture is HD. For example, a show from the 90’s cannot be broadcast in HD without remastering it, so it is probably standard definition (SD) stretched to fit the HD resolution. (“upconverted”)

    Cable and satellite used to be better than antenna simply because analogue broadcasts degraded quickly as distance increased from transmitters, and cable/sat companies could get optimum reception and send it to everyone.

    With new digital broadcasting, you get perfect picture with as low as 20% signal (with a new tuner) – roughly about the same point when analogue broadcasts were too fuzzy to watch.

    Cable and sat may have it beat in terms of offering quantity, but antenna tv now has them beat in quality. Generally the cable/sat companies will take the exact same broadcast stream and compress it to send over their network to you. The result? Decreased quality. With an antenna, you get the pure broadcast, exactly as it was intended to be viewed.

    Step 1: Check Your Availability.

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    You can get FREE (after initial “build”) high definition television in most areas. In fact, if you’re within 120 miles of a tv station, chances are, you’ll be able to get their channel.

    What TV stations are around you, and broadcasting.

    If you’re in a semi-urban area, you’re probably in an excellent area.

    If you have very little around you, unfortunately, this will not work for you.

    If you’re in an area like Toronto or Buffalo, you can access two market’s worth of channels, giving you 25 or more channels.

    Visit http://www.2150.com/broadcast/default.asp and put in your latitude and longitude to see what TV stations are around you, and their approximate distance away.

    If you don’t know your latitude and longitude, visit this site:

    which will give the latitude and longitude of anywhere you click.

    Just move around and zoom in to your location to get the most precise value.

    Step 2: Obtain an Antenna and Required Materials

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    Despite what popular marketing wants you to think these days, ANY ANTENNA WILL WORK FOR DTV/HDTV BROADCAST RECEPTION. (Yes, even that 50 year old antenna you havent touched for 30 years!)

    The only antennas which will not do much good are VHF-only, if digital broadcasts are mostly in the UHF spectrum for your area (Channel number above 13 from the broadcast search in the previous step means it is in the UHF band).

    The Channel Master 4221, Channel Master 4228, and an example of an antenna you may very well have already on your house and you never use.

    Almost all HDTV’s (LCD/plasma) ship with a built in digital tuner. (ATSC for North America and a select few countries, DVB-t for the majority of the rest of the world).

    If you do not (i.e. you have an old CRT tv or a new tv, but it doesnt have ATSC/DVB-t), no problem: you can get converter boxes for about $50 for a CRT tube, or many dvd recorders/DVR’s are including ATSC or DVB-t tuners if you wish to go that route.

    Note that a converter box which does not have HDMI/component will most likelt not output in HD, but downconvert the picture.

    Check out the Gray-Hoverman antenna:

    It’s designed to be free and “open-source” welcoming people to make their own tweaks and get the best antenna possible. You can find the official plans at the site above, or you can read the antenna development forums at Digital Home Canada to see what changes people have made and what’s the best type for you to make.

    Step 3: Hook Everything Up.

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    Once you have your antenna, mount it where you will get best reception – The higher the better. If you already have an old antenna, leave it where it is and you can test how well it works later on. (skip to the next step)

    Tower: freestanding tower holds up the antenna, sometimes attached to house for more stability.

    Tripod – a tripod holds a mast, attached to the roof

    Chimney – A mast is strapped to a (brick) chimney

    You will also want to ground the antenna/tower itself, according to local municipality standards to prevent damage to your home in the event of a lightning strike.

    Step 4: Tweak Your Reception.

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    Depending on the positioning of your antenna, you will find some stations are not quite at their best until you tweak the position for best reception of all stations.

    I found it easier to just do trial and error until it was perfect.

    (A compass to put you in the general direction wouldn’t hurt, however.)

    There are two types:

    a pre-amplifier (“preamp”) – this connects as close to the antenna as possible, providing amplification on the cleanest signal it can. This is generally the best option, but often quite expensive.

    The other type is a distribution amp, commonly used for cable systems – you plug it in somewhere along the line and amplify before you split.

    It is best to get one line up and running and see how things go before splitting. You may need to amplify to get even one line running.

    Step 5: Enjoy Your New Subscription Free TV!

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    Sit back and watch your new digital TV.

    It may only be a few channels for some people, but if you’re in an area like me, you can enjoy 25+ channels, 20 of them in high definition.

    And hey, the superior picture doesn’t hurt either.


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    Math – Scientific American, science answers and questions.#Science #answers #and #questions


    Math 923 articles archived since 1845

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    Millions, Billions, Trillions: How to Make Sense of Numbers in the News

    Anyone who can understand tens, hundreds and thousands can develop habits and skills to accurately navigate millions, billions and trillions. Stay with me, especially if you re math-averse

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    Math at the Met

    Amid the museum s 2 million works of art lie numerous mathematical curiosities

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    The Unforgiving Math That Stops Epidemics

    Not getting a flu shot could endanger more than just one s own health, herd immunity calculations show

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    The Tower of Hanoi

    A Towering Mathematical Activity from Science Buddies

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    How Animals Got Their Spots and Stripes – According to Math

    From the peacock tail and the eyespots of a butterfly, to the evolving camouflage of the chameleon, nature loves patterns

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    Food Sleuthing: Find the Missing Ingredient

    A detective activity from Science Buddies

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    How Does Geometry Explain the Phases of the Moon?

    What causes the Moon to change phases throughout the month? Why is it sometimes visible only during the day and other times only at night? What s the relationship between these times and the Moon s phases? The answer in all cases is geometry.

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    Mathematicians Measure Infinities, and Find They’re Equal

    Proof rests on a surprising link between infinity size and the complexity of mathematical theories

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    Measure Earth’s Circumference with a Shadow

    A geometry science project from Science Buddies

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    Why Is It Important to Study Math?

    What s the point of learning math? Why is it so important that kids are exposed to mathematical thinking? And what do parents and teachers need to know about learning real math? Keep on reading to find out.

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    Mathematical Wave Puzzle Shines Light on the Physics of Electrons

    A mathematician and her collaborators figured out how to predict electrons behavior by studying the mathematics of waves

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    Interfering Patterns

    A puzzling project from Science Buddies

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    How Math Puzzles Help You Plan the Perfect Party

    The right mix of people who already know one another, of boys and girls–Ramsey numbers may hold the answer

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    Mathematics World Mourns Maryam Mirzakhani, Only Woman to Win Fields Medal

    The brilliant Stanford professor, killed by breast cancer at 40, worked with shapes unconstrained by the real world

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    What Are Mixed Fractions?

    How do they work? And how can you turn them into improper fractions? Keep on reading to find out!

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    4 More FAQs about Percentages

    How do you quickly calculate 25 percent of a number? Or 33 percent of a number? And how can you quickly calculate percentage increases?

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    Nil Communication: How to Send a Message without Sending Anything at All

    Physicists have exploited the laws of quantum mechanics to send information without transmitting a signal. But have they, really?

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    Keep Rolling Luggage Upright with Physics

    A team of physicists has revealed why rolling suitcases start rocking from wheel to wheel and how to avoid that frustrating phenomenon. Christopher Intagliata reports.

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    How a Math Formula Could Decide the Fate of Endangered U.S. Species

    Feds consider conservation triage that would let some animals go extinct to save funds for protecting others

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    The Maths of Life and Death: Our Secret Weapon in the Fight against Disease

    Mathematics is increasingly integral to biology as more detailed experiments in recent years have led to a huge influx in biological data