42: The answer to life, the universe and everything, The Independent, question


42: The answer to life, the universe and everything

When Douglas Adams wrote The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, he added a central joke which has become more famous over the years than the novel itself: “The answer to the ultimate question of life, the universe and everything is 42.” Geeks have since wasted years and massive effort trying to ascribe some deep, symbolic significance to the number and its occurrences.

Now, in an attempt to cash in on their obsession, a new book published this week, 42: Douglas Adams’ Amazingly Accurate Answer to Life, the Universe and Everything, looks at real-life occurrences of the number 42. The book is timed to coincide with the 10th anniversary of Adams’s death this spring.

Scores of adolescents have posited theories about significance of the number. The actor Stephen Fry claimed to know the true answer, but won’t tell, saying he’ll take it to his grave. The author himself rather undermined the myriad analyses when he dismissed them all with the simple answer that the choice of the number was a joke.

“The answer to this is very simple,” Adams said. “It was a joke. It had to be a number, an ordinary, smallish number, and I chose that one. Binary representations, base 13, Tibetan monks are all complete nonsense. I sat on my desk, stared in to the garden and thought 42 will do. I typed it out. End of story.”

Throughout history, various numbers have had special meanings ascribed to them. Plato called the study of number symbolism “the highest level of knowledge” while Pythagoras believed numbers had souls as well as magical powers.

Meanwhile, millions of Hitchhiker’s fans to this day persist in trying to decipher what they imagine was Adams’ secret motivations. Here are 42 things to fuel their fascination with the number 42.

1. Queen Victoria’s husband Prince Albert died aged 42; they had 42 grandchildren and their great-grandson, Edward VIII, abdicated at the age of 42.

2. The world’s first book printed with movable type is the Gutenberg Bible which has 42 lines per page.

3. On page 42 of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Harry discovers he’s a wizard.

4. The first time Douglas Adams essayed the number 42 was in a sketch called “The Hole in the Wall Club”. In it, comedian Griff Rhys Jones mentions the 42nd meeting of the Crawley and District Paranoid Society.

5. Lord Lucan’s last known location was outside 42 Norman Road, Newhaven, East Sussex.

6. The Doctor Who episode entitled “42” lasts for 42 minutes.

7. Titanic was travelling at a speed equivalent to 42km/hour when it collided with an iceberg.

8. The marine battalion 42 Commando insists that it be known as “Four two, Sir!”

9. In east Asia, including parts of China, tall buildings often avoid having a 42nd floor because of tetraphobia – fear of the number four because the words “four” and “death” sound the same (si or sei). Likewise, four 14, 24, etc.

10. Elvis Presley died at the age of 42.

11. BBC Radio 4’s Desert Island Discs was created in 1942. There are 42 guests per year.

12. Toy Story character Buzz Lightyear’s spaceship is named 42.

13. Fox Mulder’s apartment in the US TV series The X Files was number 42.

14. The youngest president of the United States,Theodore Roosevelt, was 42 when he was elected.

15. The office of Google’s chief executive Eric Schmidt is called Building 42 of the firm’s San Francisco complex.

16. The Bell-X1 rocket plane Glamorous Glennis piloted by Chuck Yeager, first broke the sound barrier at 42,000 feet.

17. The atomic bomb that devastated Nagasaki, Japan, contained the destructive power of 42 million sticks of dynamite.

18. A single Big Mac contains 42 per cent of the recommended daily intake of salt.

19. Cricket has 42 laws.

20. On page 42 of Bram Stoker’s Dracula, Jonathan Harker discovers he is a prisoner of the vampire. And on the same page of Frankenstein, Victor Frankenstein reveals he is able to create life.

21. In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Friar Laurence gives Juliet a potion that allows for her to be in a death-like coma for “two and forty hours”.

22. The three best-selling music albums – Michael Jackson’s Thriller, AC/DC’s Back in Black and Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon – last 42 minutes.

23. The result of the most famous game in English football – the world cup final of 1966 – was 4-2.

24. The type 42 vacuum tube was one of the most popular audio output amplifiers of the 1930s.

25. A marathon course is 42km and 195m.

26. Samuel Johnson compiled the Dictionary of the English Language, regarded as one of the greatest works of scholarship. In a nine-year period he defined a total of 42,777 words.

27. 42,000 balls were used at Wimbledon last year.

28. The wonder horse Nijinsky was 42 months old in 1970 when he became the last horse to win the English Triple Crown: the Derby; the 2000 Guineas and the St Leger.

29. The element molybdenum has the atomic number 42 and is also the 42nd most common element in the universe.

30. Dodi Fayed was 42 when he was killed alongside Princess Diana.

31. Cell 42 on Alcatraz Island was once home to Robert Stroud who was transferred to The Rock in 1942. After murdering a guard he spent 42 years in solitary confinement in different prisons.

32. In the Book of Revelation, it is prophesised that the beast will hold dominion over the earth for 42 months.

33. The Moorgate Tube disaster of 1975 killed 42 passengers.

34. When the growing numbers of Large Hadron Collider scientists acquired more office space recently, they named their new complex Building 42.

35. Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland has 42 illustrations.

36. 42 is the favourite number of Dr House, the American television doctor played by Hugh Laurie.

37. There are 42 US gallons in a barrel of oil.

38. In an episode of The Simpsons, police chief Wiggum wakes up to a question aimed at him and replies “42”.

39. Best Western is the world’s largest hotel chain with more than 4,200 hotels in 80 countries.

40. There are 42 principles of Ma’at, the ancient Egyptian goddess – and concept – of physical and moral law, order and truth.

41. Mungo Jerry’s 1970 hit “In the Summertime”, written by Ray Dorset, has a tempo of 42 beats per minute.

42. The band Level 42 chose their name in recognition of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy and not – as is often repeated – after the world’s tallest car park.


WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE, answer any question.#Answer #any #question


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WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE

Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn’t necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. This format is:

  1. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.
  2. The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance
  3. Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: Students Who Smoke Get Lower Grades

1. The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.

2. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. Ask your mentor’s permission before including his/her name as co-author.

1. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a preview of what’s to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don’t want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper.

2. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper.

3. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts.

3. Don’t use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.

What question did you ask in your experiment? Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.

1. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.

2. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.

3. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. ( In a preliminary study, I observed the owls for one week, and found that 73 % of their locomotor activity occurred during the night, and so I conducted all subsequent experiments between 11 pm and 6 am. )

4. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?

1. This is where you present the results you’ve gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion.

2. You don’t necessarily have to include all the data you’ve gotten during the semester. This isn’t a diary.

3. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don’t try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.

The drug cured 1/3 of the infected mice, another 1/3 were not affected, and the third mouse got away.

1. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what’s in the table ( Enzyme activity at various temperatures , not My results .) For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes.

2. Don’t use a table or graph just to be fancy . If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.

1. Highlight the most significant results, but don’t just repeat what you’ve written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture?

2. End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.

This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.

There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:

1. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:

Scarlet (1990) thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus (Indigo and Mauve, 1994) and wombat (Magenta, et al., 1995).

2. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.

Indigo, A. C., and Mauve, B. E. 1994. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science 275, 1213-1214.

Magenta, S. T., Sepia, X., and Turquoise, U. 1995. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q., ed. New York: Columbia University Press. p 123-145.

Scarlet, S.L. 1990. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. cerevisae. Journal of Unusual Results 36, 26-31.

In my writing, I average about ten pages a day. Unfortunately, they’re all the same page.

Michael Alley, The Craft of Scientific Writing

A major part of any writing assignment consists of re-writing.

Write accurately

  1. Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it’s okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. (A student who tried not to repeat the word hamster produced this confusing sentence: When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play. )
  2. Make sure you say what you mean.

Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug. (sounds like a syringe was filled with drug and ground-up rats and both were injected together)

Write: I injected the drug into the rat.

  • Be careful with commonly confused words:
  • Temperature has an effect on the reaction.

    Temperature affects the reaction.

    I used solutions in various concentrations. (The solutions were 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 15 mg/ml)

    I used solutions in varying concentrations. (The concentrations I used changed; sometimes they were 5 mg/ml, other times they were 15 mg/ml.)

    Less food (can’t count numbers of food)

    Fewer animals (can count numbers of animals)

    A large amount of food (can’t count them)

    A large number of animals (can count them)

    The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin.

    The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. (Wrong. This sentence implies that there are erythrocytes elsewhere that don’t contain hemoglobin.)

    1. Write at a level that’s appropriate for your audience.

    Like a pigeon, something to admire as long as it isn’t over your head. Anonymous

    2. Use the active voice. It’s clearer and more concise than the passive voice.

    Instead of: An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured.

    Write: The rats ate more and gained weight.

    3. Use the first person.

    Instead of: It is thought

    Instead of: The samples were analyzed

    Write: I analyzed the samples

    4. Avoid dangling participles.

    After incubating at 30 degrees C, we examined the petri plates. (You must’ve been pretty warm in there.)

    1. Use verbs instead of abstract nouns

    Instead of: take into consideration

    2. Use strong verbs instead of to be

    Instead of: The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing.

    Write: The enzyme catalyzed.

    3. Use short words.

    I would never use a long word where a short one would answer the purpose. I know there are professors in this country who ‘ligate’ arteries. Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well.


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    What is the maximum length of a URL in different browsers? Stack


    answer any question

    If you keep URLs under 2000 characters, they’ll work in virtually any combination of client and server software.

    If you are targeting particular browsers, see below for more details specific limits.

    Longer answer – first, the standards.

    RFC 2616 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1) section 3.2.1 says

    The HTTP protocol does not place any a priori limit on the length of a URI. Servers MUST be able to handle the URI of any resource they serve, and SHOULD be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs. A server SHOULD return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer than the server can handle (see section 10.4.15).

    That RFC has been obsoleted by RFC7230 which is a refresh of the HTTP/1.1 specification. It contains similar language, but also goes on to suggest this:

    Various ad hoc limitations on request-line length are found in practice. It is RECOMMENDED that all HTTP senders and recipients support, at a minimum, request-line lengths of 8000 octets.

    . and the reality

    That’s what the standards say. For the reality, see this research over at boutell.com to see what individual browser and server implementations will support. It’s worth a read, but the executive summary is:

    Extremely long URLs are usually a mistake. URLs over 2,000 characters will not work in the most popular web browsers. Don’t use them if you intend your site to work for the majority of Internet users.

    (Note: this is a quote from an article written in 2006, but in 2015 IE’s declining usage means that longer URLs do work for the majority. However, IE still has the limitation. )

    Internet Explorer’s limitations.

    I’ve tested IE10 and the address bar will only accept 2083 chars. You can click a URL which is longer than this, but the address bar will still only show 2083 characters of this link.

    There’s a nice writeup on the IE Internals blog which goes into some of the background to this.

    There are mixed reports IE11 supports longer URLS – see comments below. Given some people report issues, the general advice still stands.

    Search engines like URLs 2048 chars.

    Be aware that the sitemaps protocol, which allows a site to inform search engines about available pages, has a limit of 2048 characters in a URL. If you intend to use sitemaps, a limit has been decided for you! (see Calin-Andrei Burloiu’s answer below)

    There’s also some research from 2010 into the maximum URL length that search engines will crawl and index. They found the limit was 2047 chars, which appears allied to the sitemap protocol spec. However, they also found the Google SERP tool wouldn’t cope with URLs longer than 1855 chars.

    Additional browser roundup

    I tested the following against an Apache 2.4 server configured with a very large LimitRequestLine and LimitRequestFieldSize.

    See also this answer from Matas Vaitkevicius below.

    Is this information up to date?

    This is a popular question, and as the original research is

    9 years old I’ll try to keep it up to date: As of Sep 2017, the advice still stands. Even though IE11 may possibly accept longer URLs, the ubiquity of older IE installations plus the search engine limitations mean staying under 2000 chars is the best general policy.

    WWW FAQs: What is the maximum length of a URL? has its own answer based on empirical testing and research. The short answer is that going over 2048 characters makes Internet Explorer unhappy and thus this is the limit you should use. See the page for a long answer.

    Answer any question

    The longest URLs I came across are data URLs

    Example image URL from Google image results (11747 characters)

    I wrote this test that keeps on adding ‘a’ to parameter until the browser fails

    On Chrome I got:

    It then blew up with:

    HTTP Error 404.15 – Not Found The request filtering module is configured to deny a request where the query string is too long.

    Same on Internet Explorer 8 and Firefox

    I went easy mode and added additional limits to IISExpress applicationhost.config and web.config setting maxQueryStringLength=”32768″ .

    after 7744 characters.

    which didn’t help at all. I finally decided to use fiddler to remove the referrer from header.

    Which did nicely.

    Chrome: got to 15613 characters. (I guess it’s a 16K limit for IIS)

    And it failed again with:

    Internet Explorer 8 failed with iexplore.exe crashing.

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    There is really no universal maximum URL length. The max length is determined only by what the client browser chooses to support, which varies widely. The 2,083 limit is only present in Internet Explorer (all versions up to 7.0). The max length in Firefox and Safari seems to be unlimited, although instability occurs with URLs reaching around 65,000 characters. Opera seems to have no max URL length whatsoever, and doesn’t suffer instability at extremely long lengths.

    The URI RFC (of which URLs are a subset) doesn’t define a maximum length, however, it does recommend that the hostname part of the URI (if applicable) not exceed 255 characters in length:

    URI producers should use names that conform to the DNS syntax, even when use of DNS is not immediately apparent, and should limit these names to no more than 255 characters in length.

    As noted in other posts though, some browsers have a practical limitation on the length of a URL.

    URIs in HTTP can be represented in absolute form or relative to some

    known base URI [11], depending upon the context of their use. The two

    forms are differentiated by the fact that absolute URIs always begin

    with a scheme name followed by a colon. For definitive information on

    URL syntax and semantics, see “Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax and Semantics,” RFC 2396 [42] (which replaces RFCs 1738 [4] and RFC 1808 [11]). This specification adopts the definitions of “URI-reference”, “absoluteURI”, “relativeURI”, “port”,

    “host”,”abs_path”, “rel_path”, and “authority” from that

    The HTTP protocol does not place any a priori limit on the length of

    a URI. Servers MUST be able to handle the URI of any resource they serve, and SHOULD be able to handle URIs of unbounded length if they provide GET-based forms that could generate such URIs.* A server SHOULD return 414 (Request-URI Too Long) status if a URI is longer than the server can handle (see section 10.4.15).

    Note: Servers ought to be cautious about depending on URI lengths above 255 bytes, because some older client or proxy implementations might not properly support these lengths.


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    2 Answers

    Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

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    Apple has announced that Swift apps will be backward compatible with iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks. The WWDC app is written in Swift.

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    Answer any question The Eleventh Edition of

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    The Official Robert s Rules of Order Web Site, answer any question.#Answer


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    Welcome! On this website you will find information about:

    • Robert’s Rules of Order and its up-to-date current edition, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) [click here for a summary list of Notable Changes in the 11th Edition];
    • the short book that provides a simple introduction to parliamentary procedure, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB);
    • the authors who have created the leading manual of parliamentary procedure; and
    • how you can useRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised to help your organization run more smoothly.

    The CD-ROM version of the Eleventh Edition of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is now available. The CD is designed for installation on Windows PCs.

    • Full searchable texts of RONR (11th ed.) and RONRIB (2nd ed.), including all notes, charts, tables, lists, and indexes
    • Hyperlinked section and page cross-references — within each book and from one book to the other
    • Browse by chapter and section or subsection headings, or go directly to any page number
    • Search an entire book, or restrict to selected portions
    • Perform simple keyword or phrase searches, or use advanced search features: Boolean, wildcard, word forms/stems, proximity
    • Create your own bookmarks, highlighters, and notes

    Additional bonus materials on the CD include:

    • Sample Rules for Electronic Meetings drafted by the authors of RONR to address various scenarios. Contains four complete sets of rules.
    • Understanding Secondary Amendments, a chapter written in the simplified style of RONRIB and designed as an intermediate step between the explanation of primary amendments in Chapter 5 of RONRIB and the full treatment of amendments in 12 of RONR
    • Ballot Voting rule summaries, checklists, tally sheets, and Tellers’ Report forms, including an interactive PDF form for elections that automatically calculates the number of votes cast and the majority
    • Timekeepers’ Guide with instructions, tables, and forms
    • Forms for motions, roll-call votes, regular and special meeting notices, and convention credentials and registration

    The Robert’s Rules of Order CD-ROM may be purchased from American Legal Publishing.

    If you have a question about what Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised prescribes for a particular situation, first check our Frequently Asked Questions — you may get a quick, accurate answer. Also see Official Interpretations clarifying questions of parliamentary law by the authors of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised.

    If that doesn’t settle the matter, you can participate in our Question and Answer Forum.

    We also have links that allow you to purchase copies of the books for yourself or your organization. (Click here to scroll to the “Add to Amazon.com Shopping Cart” buttons below.) Answer any question New to meeting rules? Get the best introduction:

    The rules you need in a meeting

    MADE SIMPLE AND EASY!

    Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief

    GOING TO A MEETING? WANT TO KNOW HOW TO TAKE PART? LEARN QUICKLY AND EASILY! THIS SHORT, SIMPLE BOOK INCLUDES:

    • Sample dialogues to get you confidently through motions, nominations, elections, votes, debate, amendments, and more
    • Invaluable tips for keeping meetings orderly and on track
    • A chapter answering the most frequently asked questions

    NOT SURE WHAT TO DO AT A MEETING?

    • Handy tables at the back of the book tell you just what to say

    APPOINTED TO A COMMITTEE? CHOSEN AS A CONVENTION DELEGATE? ELECTED AS AN OFFICER OR BOARD MEMBER?

    • Chapters on each clearly explain your duties

    To order now, click the Add In Brief to Amazon.com Shopping Cart button further below.

    Answer any question The Eleventh Edition of

    Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised

    The book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and novice club presidents alike, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is this country’s recognized guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings. It is the only book to have been maintained since 1876 under the continuing program established by General Henry M. Robert himself in cooperation with the official publishers of Robert’s Rules.

    Available in hardcover, paperback, and deluxe editions, as well as in electronic form on CD-ROM.

    Answer any question


    Major Blow to Obamacare Mandate: IRS Won – t Reject Tax Returns


    HIT RUN BLOG

    The tax agency has stopped requiring individual filers to indicate whether they maintained health coverage or paid the mandate penalty as required under the law

    Answer any questionCredit – Olivier Douliery/UPI/Newscom How much difference does a single line on a tax form make? For Obamacare’s individual mandate, the answer might be quite a lot.

    Following President Donald Trump’s executive order instructing agencies to provide relief from the health law, the Internal Revenue Service appears to be taking a more lax approach to the coverage requirement.

    The health law’s individual mandate requires everyone to either maintain qualifying health coverage or pay a tax penalty, known as a “shared responsibility payment.” The IRS was set to require filers to indicate whether they had maintained coverage in 2016 or paid the penalty by filling out line 61 on their form 1040s. Alternatively, they could claim exemption from the mandate by filing a form 8965.

    For most filers, filling out line 61 would be mandatory. The IRS would not accept 1040s unless the coverage box was checked, or the shared responsibility payment noted, or the exemption form included. Otherwise they would be labeled “silent returns” and rejected.

    Instead, however, filling out that line will be optional.

    Earlier this month, the IRS quietly altered its rules to allow the submission of 1040s with nothing on line 61. The IRS says it still maintains the option to follow up with those who elect not to indicate their coverage status, although it’s not clear what circumstances might trigger a follow up.

    But what would have been a mandatory disclosure will instead be voluntary. Silent returns will no longer be automatically rejected. The change is a direct result of the executive order President Donald Trump issued in January directing the government to provide relief from Obamacare to individuals and insurers, within the boundaries of the law.

    “The recent executive order directed federal agencies to exercise authority and discretion available to them to reduce potential burden,” the IRS said in a statement to Reason. “Consistent with that, the IRS has decided to make changes that would continue to allow electronic and paper returns to be accepted for processing in instances where a taxpayer doesn’t indicate their coverage status.”

    The tax agency says the change will reduce the health law’s strain on taxpayers. “Processing silent returns means that taxpayer returns are not systemically rejected, allowing them to be processed and minimizing burden on taxpayers, including those expecting a refund,” the IRS statement said.

    The change may seem minor. But it makes it clear that following Trump’s executive order, the agency’s trajectory is towards a less strict enforcement process.

    Although the new policy leaves Obamacare’s individual mandate on the books, it may make it easier for individuals to go without coverage while avoiding the penalty. Essentially, if not explicitly, it is a weakening of the mandate enforcement mechanism.

    “It’s hard to enforce something without information,” says Ryan Ellis, a Senior Fellow at the Conservative Reform Network.

    The move has already raised questions about its legality. Federal law gives the administration broad authority to provide exemptions from the mandate. But “it does not allow the administration not to enforce the mandate, which it appears they may be doing here,” says Michael Cannon, health policy director at the libertarian Cato Institute. “Unless the Trump administration maintains the mandate is unconstitutional, the Constitution requires them to enforce it.”

    “The mandate can only be weakened by Congress,” says Ellis. “This is a change to how the IRS is choosing to enforce it. They will count on voluntary disclosure of non-coverage rather than asking themselves.”

    The IRS notes that taxpayers are still required to pay the mandate penalty, if applicable. “Legislative provisions of the ACA law are still in force until changed by the Congress, and taxpayers remain required to follow the law and pay what they may owe‎,” the agency statement said.

    Ellis says the new policy doesn’t fully rise to the level of declining to enforce the law. “If the IRS turns a blind eye to people’s status, that isn’t quite not enforcing it,” he says. “It’s more like the IRS wanting to maintain plausible deniability.”

    Tax software companies are already making note of the change. Drake Software, which provides services to tax professionals, recently sent out a notice explaining the change in policy. As of February 3, the notice said, the IRS “will now accept an e-filed return that does not indicate either full-year coverage or an individual shared responsibility payment or does not include an exemption on Form 8965, as required by IRS instructions, Form 1040, line 61.”

    The mandate is a key component of Obamacare’s coverage scheme, which is built on what experts sometimes describe as a “three-legged stool.” The law requires health insurers to sell to all comers regardless of health history, and offers subsidies to lower income individuals in order to offset the cost of coverage. In order to prevent people from signing up for coverage only after getting sick, it also requires most individuals to maintain qualifying coverage or face a tax penalty. While defending the health law in court, the Obama administration maintained that the mandate was essential to the structure of the law, designed to make sure that people did not take advantage of its protections.

    In a 2012 case challenging the law’s insurance requirement, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual mandate was constitutional as a tax penalty. The IRS is in charge of collecting payments.

    Some health policy experts have argued that the mandate was already too weak to be effective, as a result of the many exemptions that are included. A 2012 report by the consulting firm Milliman found that the mandate penalty offered only a modest financial incentives for families making 300-400 percent of the federal poverty line. More recently, health insurers have said that individuals signing up for coverage and then quickly dropping it after major health expenses is a key driver of losses, and rising health insurance premiums.

    It’s too early to say whether the change will ultimately make any difference. But given the centrality of the mandate to the law’s coverage scheme and the unsteadiness of the law’s health insurance exchanges, with premiums rising and insurers scaling back participation, it is possible that even a marginal weakening of the mandate could cause further dysfunction. Health insurers have said the mandate is a priority, and asked for it to be strengthened. Weaker enforcement of the mandate could cause insurance carriers to further reduce participation in the exchanges. One major insurer, Humana, said today that it would completely exit Obamacare’s exchanges after this year.

    It is also possible that congressional Republicans will make it moot by repealing much of the law, including its individual mandate, which, as a tax, can be taken down with just 51 Senate votes.

    Regardless of its direct impact, however, the change may signal that the Trump administration intends to water down enforcement of the health law’s most controversial requirement, even if those steps are seemingly small. The Trump administration may not be tearing Obamacare down entirely, but it appears to be taking steps to weaken the law, however subtly, one line at a time.

    Correction: The IRS did not reject silent returns last year, as this story originally indicated. The plan was to go into effect this year, for 2016 returns, but the IRS reversed course on February 3. Reason regrets the error.

    Peter Suderman is features editor at Reason.


    The Official Robert s Rules of Order Web Site, question and answer


    question and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer siteQuestion and answer site

    Question and answer site

    Question and answer site

    Welcome! On this website you will find information about:

    • Robert’s Rules of Order and its up-to-date current edition, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) [click here for a summary list of Notable Changes in the 11th Edition];
    • the short book that provides a simple introduction to parliamentary procedure, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB);
    • the authors who have created the leading manual of parliamentary procedure; and
    • how you can useRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised to help your organization run more smoothly.

    The CD-ROM version of the Eleventh Edition of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is now available. The CD is designed for installation on Windows PCs.

    • Full searchable texts of RONR (11th ed.) and RONRIB (2nd ed.), including all notes, charts, tables, lists, and indexes
    • Hyperlinked section and page cross-references — within each book and from one book to the other
    • Browse by chapter and section or subsection headings, or go directly to any page number
    • Search an entire book, or restrict to selected portions
    • Perform simple keyword or phrase searches, or use advanced search features: Boolean, wildcard, word forms/stems, proximity
    • Create your own bookmarks, highlighters, and notes

    Additional bonus materials on the CD include:

    • Sample Rules for Electronic Meetings drafted by the authors of RONR to address various scenarios. Contains four complete sets of rules.
    • Understanding Secondary Amendments, a chapter written in the simplified style of RONRIB and designed as an intermediate step between the explanation of primary amendments in Chapter 5 of RONRIB and the full treatment of amendments in 12 of RONR
    • Ballot Voting rule summaries, checklists, tally sheets, and Tellers’ Report forms, including an interactive PDF form for elections that automatically calculates the number of votes cast and the majority
    • Timekeepers’ Guide with instructions, tables, and forms
    • Forms for motions, roll-call votes, regular and special meeting notices, and convention credentials and registration

    The Robert’s Rules of Order CD-ROM may be purchased from American Legal Publishing.

    If you have a question about what Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised prescribes for a particular situation, first check our Frequently Asked Questions — you may get a quick, accurate answer. Also see Official Interpretations clarifying questions of parliamentary law by the authors of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised.

    If that doesn’t settle the matter, you can participate in our Question and Answer Forum.

    We also have links that allow you to purchase copies of the books for yourself or your organization. (Click here to scroll to the “Add to Amazon.com Shopping Cart” buttons below.) Question and answer site New to meeting rules? Get the best introduction:

    The rules you need in a meeting

    MADE SIMPLE AND EASY!

    Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief

    GOING TO A MEETING? WANT TO KNOW HOW TO TAKE PART? LEARN QUICKLY AND EASILY! THIS SHORT, SIMPLE BOOK INCLUDES:

    • Sample dialogues to get you confidently through motions, nominations, elections, votes, debate, amendments, and more
    • Invaluable tips for keeping meetings orderly and on track
    • A chapter answering the most frequently asked questions

    NOT SURE WHAT TO DO AT A MEETING?

    • Handy tables at the back of the book tell you just what to say

    APPOINTED TO A COMMITTEE? CHOSEN AS A CONVENTION DELEGATE? ELECTED AS AN OFFICER OR BOARD MEMBER?

    • Chapters on each clearly explain your duties

    To order now, click the Add In Brief to Amazon.com Shopping Cart button further below.

    Question and answer site The Eleventh Edition of

    Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised

    The book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and novice club presidents alike, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is this country’s recognized guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings. It is the only book to have been maintained since 1876 under the continuing program established by General Henry M. Robert himself in cooperation with the official publishers of Robert’s Rules.

    Available in hardcover, paperback, and deluxe editions, as well as in electronic form on CD-ROM.

    Question and answer site


    Why is the Sky Blue, question and answer site.#Question #and #answer #site


    Why is the Sky Blue?

    by Science Made Simple

    Why is the Sky Blue?

    On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red?

    To answer these questions, we must learn about light, and the Earth’s atmosphere.

    MIT used parts of this article in their online class!

    Table of Contents

    The Atmosphere

    The atmosphere is the mixture of gas molecules and other materials surrounding the earth. It is made mostly of the gases nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%). Argon gas and water (in the form of vapor, droplets and ice crystals) are the next most common things. There are also small amounts of other gases, plus many small solid particles, like dust, soot and ashes, pollen, and salt from the oceans.

    The composition of the atmosphere varies, depending on your location, the weather, and many other things. There may be more water in the air after a rainstorm, or near the ocean. Volcanoes can put large amounts of dust particles high into the atmosphere. Pollution can add different gases or dust and soot.

    The atmosphere is densest (thickest) at the bottom, near the Earth. It gradually thins out as you go higher and higher up. There is no sharp break between the atmosphere and space. Learn more about the atmosphere.

    Light Waves

    Light is a kind of energy that radiates, or travels, in waves. Many different kinds of energy travel in waves. For example, sound is a wave of vibrating air. Light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields.

    Question and answer site

    It is one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields. This range is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Electromagnetic waves travel through space at 299,792 km/sec (186,282 miles/sec). This is called the speed of light.

    The energy of the radiation depends on its wavelength and frequency. Wavelength is the distance between the tops (crests) of the waves. Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. The longer the wavelength of the light, the lower the frequency, and the less energy it contains.

    Colors of Light

    Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see. Light from the sun or a light bulb may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colors. We can see the different colors of the spectrum by splitting the light with a prism. Question and answer site

    The spectrum is also visible when you see a rainbow in the sky.

    The colors blend continuously into one another. At one end of the spectrum are the reds and oranges. These gradually shade into yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colors have different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. Violet has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. That means it has the highest frequency and energy. Red has the longest wavelength, and lowest frequency and energy.

    Light in the Air

    Light travels through space in a straight line as long as nothing disturbs it. As light moves through the atmosphere, it continues to go straight until it bumps into a bit of dust or a gas molecule. Then what happens to the light depends on its wave length and the size of the thing it hits.

    Dust particles and water droplets are much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light hits these large particles, it gets reflected, or bounced off, in different directions. The different colors of light are all reflected by the particle in the same way. The reflected light appears white because it still contains all of the same colors.

    Gas molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If light bumps into them, it acts differently. When light hits a gas molecule, some of it may get absorbed. After awhile, the molecule radiates (releases, or gives off) the light in a different direction. The color that is radiated is the same color that was absorbed. The different colors of light are affected differently. All of the colors can be absorbed. But the higher frequencies (blues) are absorbed more often than the lower frequencies (reds). This process is called Rayleigh scattering. (It is named after Lord John Rayleigh, an English physicist, who first described it in the 1870’s.)

    Why is the Sky Blue?

    The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Question and answer siteAs light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air.

    However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue.

    As you look closer to the horizon, the sky appears much paler in color. To reach you, the scattered blue light must pass through more air. Some of it gets scattered away again in other directions. Less blue light reaches your eyes. The color of the sky near the horizon appears paler or white.

    Question and answer site

    Why is Space Black? Why is the Sunset Red?

    On Earth, the sun appears yellow. But what if you were out in space? What color would it be?

    Get more great science articles each month with the