The Official Robert s Rules of Order Web Site, question & answer.#Question


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Welcome! On this website you will find information about:

  • Robert’s Rules of Order and its up-to-date current edition, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) [click here for a summary list of Notable Changes in the 11th Edition];
  • the short book that provides a simple introduction to parliamentary procedure, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB);
  • the authors who have created the leading manual of parliamentary procedure; and
  • how you can useRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised to help your organization run more smoothly.

The CD-ROM version of the Eleventh Edition of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is now available. The CD is designed for installation on Windows PCs.

  • Full searchable texts of RONR (11th ed.) and RONRIB (2nd ed.), including all notes, charts, tables, lists, and indexes
  • Hyperlinked section and page cross-references — within each book and from one book to the other
  • Browse by chapter and section or subsection headings, or go directly to any page number
  • Search an entire book, or restrict to selected portions
  • Perform simple keyword or phrase searches, or use advanced search features: Boolean, wildcard, word forms/stems, proximity
  • Create your own bookmarks, highlighters, and notes

Additional bonus materials on the CD include:

  • Sample Rules for Electronic Meetings drafted by the authors of RONR to address various scenarios. Contains four complete sets of rules.
  • Understanding Secondary Amendments, a chapter written in the simplified style of RONRIB and designed as an intermediate step between the explanation of primary amendments in Chapter 5 of RONRIB and the full treatment of amendments in 12 of RONR
  • Ballot Voting rule summaries, checklists, tally sheets, and Tellers’ Report forms, including an interactive PDF form for elections that automatically calculates the number of votes cast and the majority
  • Timekeepers’ Guide with instructions, tables, and forms
  • Forms for motions, roll-call votes, regular and special meeting notices, and convention credentials and registration

The Robert’s Rules of Order CD-ROM may be purchased from American Legal Publishing.

If you have a question about what Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised prescribes for a particular situation, first check our Frequently Asked Questions — you may get a quick, accurate answer. Also see Official Interpretations clarifying questions of parliamentary law by the authors of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised.

If that doesn’t settle the matter, you can participate in our Question and Answer Forum.

We also have links that allow you to purchase copies of the books for yourself or your organization. (Click here to scroll to the “Add to Amazon.com Shopping Cart” buttons below.) Question & answer New to meeting rules? Get the best introduction:

The rules you need in a meeting

MADE SIMPLE AND EASY!

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief

GOING TO A MEETING? WANT TO KNOW HOW TO TAKE PART? LEARN QUICKLY AND EASILY! THIS SHORT, SIMPLE BOOK INCLUDES:

  • Sample dialogues to get you confidently through motions, nominations, elections, votes, debate, amendments, and more
  • Invaluable tips for keeping meetings orderly and on track
  • A chapter answering the most frequently asked questions

NOT SURE WHAT TO DO AT A MEETING?

  • Handy tables at the back of the book tell you just what to say

APPOINTED TO A COMMITTEE? CHOSEN AS A CONVENTION DELEGATE? ELECTED AS AN OFFICER OR BOARD MEMBER?

  • Chapters on each clearly explain your duties

To order now, click the Add In Brief to Amazon.com Shopping Cart button further below.

Question & answer The Eleventh Edition of

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised

The book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and novice club presidents alike, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is this country’s recognized guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings. It is the only book to have been maintained since 1876 under the continuing program established by General Henry M. Robert himself in cooperation with the official publishers of Robert’s Rules.

Available in hardcover, paperback, and deluxe editions, as well as in electronic form on CD-ROM.

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Why is the Sky Blue, question & answer.#Question #& #answer


Why is the Sky Blue?

by Science Made Simple

Why is the Sky Blue?

On a clear sunny day, the sky above us looks bright blue. In the evening, the sunset puts on a brilliant show of reds, pinks and oranges. Why is the sky blue? What makes the sunset red?

To answer these questions, we must learn about light, and the Earth’s atmosphere.

MIT used parts of this article in their online class!

Table of Contents

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the mixture of gas molecules and other materials surrounding the earth. It is made mostly of the gases nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%). Argon gas and water (in the form of vapor, droplets and ice crystals) are the next most common things. There are also small amounts of other gases, plus many small solid particles, like dust, soot and ashes, pollen, and salt from the oceans.

The composition of the atmosphere varies, depending on your location, the weather, and many other things. There may be more water in the air after a rainstorm, or near the ocean. Volcanoes can put large amounts of dust particles high into the atmosphere. Pollution can add different gases or dust and soot.

The atmosphere is densest (thickest) at the bottom, near the Earth. It gradually thins out as you go higher and higher up. There is no sharp break between the atmosphere and space. Learn more about the atmosphere.

Light Waves

Light is a kind of energy that radiates, or travels, in waves. Many different kinds of energy travel in waves. For example, sound is a wave of vibrating air. Light is a wave of vibrating electric and magnetic fields.

Question & answer

It is one small part of a larger range of vibrating electromagnetic fields. This range is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetic waves travel through space at 299,792 km/sec (186,282 miles/sec). This is called the speed of light.

The energy of the radiation depends on its wavelength and frequency. Wavelength is the distance between the tops (crests) of the waves. Frequency is the number of waves that pass by each second. The longer the wavelength of the light, the lower the frequency, and the less energy it contains.

Colors of Light

Visible light is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes can see. Light from the sun or a light bulb may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colors. We can see the different colors of the spectrum by splitting the light with a prism. Question & answer

The spectrum is also visible when you see a rainbow in the sky.

The colors blend continuously into one another. At one end of the spectrum are the reds and oranges. These gradually shade into yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colors have different wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. Violet has the shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum. That means it has the highest frequency and energy. Red has the longest wavelength, and lowest frequency and energy.

Light in the Air

Light travels through space in a straight line as long as nothing disturbs it. As light moves through the atmosphere, it continues to go straight until it bumps into a bit of dust or a gas molecule. Then what happens to the light depends on its wave length and the size of the thing it hits.

Dust particles and water droplets are much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light hits these large particles, it gets reflected, or bounced off, in different directions. The different colors of light are all reflected by the particle in the same way. The reflected light appears white because it still contains all of the same colors.

Gas molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. If light bumps into them, it acts differently. When light hits a gas molecule, some of it may get absorbed. After awhile, the molecule radiates (releases, or gives off) the light in a different direction. The color that is radiated is the same color that was absorbed. The different colors of light are affected differently. All of the colors can be absorbed. But the higher frequencies (blues) are absorbed more often than the lower frequencies (reds). This process is called Rayleigh scattering. (It is named after Lord John Rayleigh, an English physicist, who first described it in the 1870’s.)

Why is the Sky Blue?

The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Question & answerAs light moves through the atmosphere, most of the longer wavelengths pass straight through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the air.

However, much of the shorter wavelength light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue.

As you look closer to the horizon, the sky appears much paler in color. To reach you, the scattered blue light must pass through more air. Some of it gets scattered away again in other directions. Less blue light reaches your eyes. The color of the sky near the horizon appears paler or white.

Question & answer

Why is Space Black? Why is the Sunset Red?

On Earth, the sun appears yellow. But what if you were out in space? What color would it be?

Get more great science articles each month with the


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Major Blow to Obamacare Mandate: IRS Won – t Reject Tax Returns


HIT RUN BLOG

The tax agency has stopped requiring individual filers to indicate whether they maintained health coverage or paid the mandate penalty as required under the law

Question & answerCredit – Olivier Douliery/UPI/Newscom How much difference does a single line on a tax form make? For Obamacare’s individual mandate, the answer might be quite a lot.

Following President Donald Trump’s executive order instructing agencies to provide relief from the health law, the Internal Revenue Service appears to be taking a more lax approach to the coverage requirement.

The health law’s individual mandate requires everyone to either maintain qualifying health coverage or pay a tax penalty, known as a “shared responsibility payment.” The IRS was set to require filers to indicate whether they had maintained coverage in 2016 or paid the penalty by filling out line 61 on their form 1040s. Alternatively, they could claim exemption from the mandate by filing a form 8965.

For most filers, filling out line 61 would be mandatory. The IRS would not accept 1040s unless the coverage box was checked, or the shared responsibility payment noted, or the exemption form included. Otherwise they would be labeled “silent returns” and rejected.

Instead, however, filling out that line will be optional.

Earlier this month, the IRS quietly altered its rules to allow the submission of 1040s with nothing on line 61. The IRS says it still maintains the option to follow up with those who elect not to indicate their coverage status, although it’s not clear what circumstances might trigger a follow up.

But what would have been a mandatory disclosure will instead be voluntary. Silent returns will no longer be automatically rejected. The change is a direct result of the executive order President Donald Trump issued in January directing the government to provide relief from Obamacare to individuals and insurers, within the boundaries of the law.

“The recent executive order directed federal agencies to exercise authority and discretion available to them to reduce potential burden,” the IRS said in a statement to Reason. “Consistent with that, the IRS has decided to make changes that would continue to allow electronic and paper returns to be accepted for processing in instances where a taxpayer doesn’t indicate their coverage status.”

The tax agency says the change will reduce the health law’s strain on taxpayers. “Processing silent returns means that taxpayer returns are not systemically rejected, allowing them to be processed and minimizing burden on taxpayers, including those expecting a refund,” the IRS statement said.

The change may seem minor. But it makes it clear that following Trump’s executive order, the agency’s trajectory is towards a less strict enforcement process.

Although the new policy leaves Obamacare’s individual mandate on the books, it may make it easier for individuals to go without coverage while avoiding the penalty. Essentially, if not explicitly, it is a weakening of the mandate enforcement mechanism.

“It’s hard to enforce something without information,” says Ryan Ellis, a Senior Fellow at the Conservative Reform Network.

The move has already raised questions about its legality. Federal law gives the administration broad authority to provide exemptions from the mandate. But “it does not allow the administration not to enforce the mandate, which it appears they may be doing here,” says Michael Cannon, health policy director at the libertarian Cato Institute. “Unless the Trump administration maintains the mandate is unconstitutional, the Constitution requires them to enforce it.”

“The mandate can only be weakened by Congress,” says Ellis. “This is a change to how the IRS is choosing to enforce it. They will count on voluntary disclosure of non-coverage rather than asking themselves.”

The IRS notes that taxpayers are still required to pay the mandate penalty, if applicable. “Legislative provisions of the ACA law are still in force until changed by the Congress, and taxpayers remain required to follow the law and pay what they may owe‎,” the agency statement said.

Ellis says the new policy doesn’t fully rise to the level of declining to enforce the law. “If the IRS turns a blind eye to people’s status, that isn’t quite not enforcing it,” he says. “It’s more like the IRS wanting to maintain plausible deniability.”

Tax software companies are already making note of the change. Drake Software, which provides services to tax professionals, recently sent out a notice explaining the change in policy. As of February 3, the notice said, the IRS “will now accept an e-filed return that does not indicate either full-year coverage or an individual shared responsibility payment or does not include an exemption on Form 8965, as required by IRS instructions, Form 1040, line 61.”

The mandate is a key component of Obamacare’s coverage scheme, which is built on what experts sometimes describe as a “three-legged stool.” The law requires health insurers to sell to all comers regardless of health history, and offers subsidies to lower income individuals in order to offset the cost of coverage. In order to prevent people from signing up for coverage only after getting sick, it also requires most individuals to maintain qualifying coverage or face a tax penalty. While defending the health law in court, the Obama administration maintained that the mandate was essential to the structure of the law, designed to make sure that people did not take advantage of its protections.

In a 2012 case challenging the law’s insurance requirement, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual mandate was constitutional as a tax penalty. The IRS is in charge of collecting payments.

Some health policy experts have argued that the mandate was already too weak to be effective, as a result of the many exemptions that are included. A 2012 report by the consulting firm Milliman found that the mandate penalty offered only a modest financial incentives for families making 300-400 percent of the federal poverty line. More recently, health insurers have said that individuals signing up for coverage and then quickly dropping it after major health expenses is a key driver of losses, and rising health insurance premiums.

It’s too early to say whether the change will ultimately make any difference. But given the centrality of the mandate to the law’s coverage scheme and the unsteadiness of the law’s health insurance exchanges, with premiums rising and insurers scaling back participation, it is possible that even a marginal weakening of the mandate could cause further dysfunction. Health insurers have said the mandate is a priority, and asked for it to be strengthened. Weaker enforcement of the mandate could cause insurance carriers to further reduce participation in the exchanges. One major insurer, Humana, said today that it would completely exit Obamacare’s exchanges after this year.

It is also possible that congressional Republicans will make it moot by repealing much of the law, including its individual mandate, which, as a tax, can be taken down with just 51 Senate votes.

Regardless of its direct impact, however, the change may signal that the Trump administration intends to water down enforcement of the health law’s most controversial requirement, even if those steps are seemingly small. The Trump administration may not be tearing Obamacare down entirely, but it appears to be taking steps to weaken the law, however subtly, one line at a time.

Correction: The IRS did not reject silent returns last year, as this story originally indicated. The plan was to go into effect this year, for 2016 returns, but the IRS reversed course on February 3. Reason regrets the error.

Peter Suderman is features editor at Reason.


Tour – Stack Overflow, question & answer.#Question #& #answer


Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

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2 Answers

Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

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Apple has announced that Swift apps will be backward compatible with iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks. The WWDC app is written in Swift.

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Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

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Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

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Job Interview Questions and Answers, answer any question.#Answer #any #question


Job Interview Questions and Answers

Answer any question

Answer any question

Do you have a job interview coming up? The best way to get ready for an interview is to take the time to review the most common interview questions you will most likely be asked. Knowing what you re going to say can eliminate a lot of interview stress.

You don t need to memorize an answer, but do take the time to consider how you ll respond. The more you prepare, the more confident you ll feel during a job interview.

When you re not sure what to expect during an interview, also review this refresher on how job interviews work.

Job Interview Questions and Best Answers

Review examples of the best answers for the most frequently asked interview questions in several different categories, and advice on how to answer.

Most Frequently Asked Interview Questions

Interview Questions About You

Interviewers will ask questions about you to gain insight into your personality, and to determine whether you re a fit for both the job and the company.

Questions About Leaving Your Job

Employers almost always ask about why you left, or are leaving, your job. Be prepared with an explanation for why you re moving on.

Interview Questions About Salary

Some of the hardest questions to answer during a job interview are about compensation.

Here s what you will be asked and examples of the best answers.

Questions About Qualifications

The most important thing for interviewers to determine is whether you re qualified for the job. Here s what they will ask to find out.

Questions About Job Performance

How you performed in previous roles can indicate how you will perform in the job for which you re applying. Be prepared to answer questions about what you did well – and what you didn t.

Interview Questions About Your Work History

Is your work history stable, has it prepared you for the job you re interviewing for, and do you have any gaps in your employment history that the company should be concerned about? Here s what you ll be asked about.

Questions About Management and Teamwork

How you get along with others, including both co-workers and managers, is important to all employers. Here are some of the questions employers ask about getting along at work.

Questions About Why You Should Be Hired

Why should you be hired over the other candidates? Here s when you ll have the opportunity to make the case for getting a job offer.

Interview Questions About the New Job and the Company

What do you know about the company, why do you want the job, and what would you do if you were to be hired, are just some of the questions you ll be asked about the position and employer.

Interview Questions About the Future

Are you going to stick around if you re hired is something most employers want to know. All these questions will gauge your interest in making a commitment.

The Final Question

The last question you ll most likely be asked is whether you have any questions. Here s how to respond.

In addition to being ready to answer these standard questions, prepare for behavior-based interview questions. This is based on the premise that a candidate s past performance is the best predictor of future performance. You will need to be prepared to provide detailed responses including specific examples of your work experiences.

There are some interview questions, typically known as illegal interview questions, that employers should not ask during a job interview. Here are questions that shouldn t be asked during a job interview and how to best respond.

Have a phone interview on the agenda? Here are common questions asked during a telephone interview, plus tips on how best to answer so you can move to the next stage of the interview process.

The last job interview question you may be asked is What can I answer for you? Have an interview question or two of your own ready to ask. You aren t simply trying to get this job – you are also interviewing the employer to assess whether this company and the position are a good fit for you.


Right Question Institute – A Catalyst for Microdemocracy, question & answer.#Question #&


Right Question Institute

A Catalyst for Microdemocracy

The Right Question Institute makes it possible for all people to learn to ask better questions and participate more effectively in key decisions.

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Dan Rothstein Luz Santana in Education Leadership @ ASCD

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Warren Berger, A More Beautiful Question

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Make Just One Change

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A clear, practical explanation with compelling examples of how to teach all students to ask their own questions.

Support RQI Donate Now

RQI is a 501(c)(3) educational non-profit organization. Your tax-deductible contribution will help improve education for all students and make a difference in many communities.

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Luz Santana & Dan Rothstein

Better Questions, Better Decisions, and a Stronger Democracy

We’ve been at work for more than 20 years teaching a strategy that helps people in low-income communities learn to advocate for themselves and their families. We have seen people use the strategy to advocate for their children at school, participate in decisions that affect them at the welfare office, secure better job training opportunities, and partner more effectively with their healthcare providers. We’ve also seen that the same strategy has universal value and has been used by college and graduate school students, professors, and professionals in various fields.

What is the “Right Question Strategy?” It is deceptively simple: Teach just two skills; how to ask your own questions and how to participate in decisions that affect you. We are often challenged to explain why these simple skills even need to be taught, and then, there are times when those who understand the full significance of these very sophisticated skills need to be convinced that they can even be taught.

We are seeing an explosion of implementation around the country in teaching the skill of question formulation. Since Harvard Education Press published Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions in 2011, thousands of educators around the world have begun to teach their students how to ask their own questions. The results are students who are more engaged in their learning, take more ownership and learn more.

Learning “just” these two skills creates not only a pathway to success on many levels but also a pathway to full participation in democracy. We need more people capable of thinking for themselves and ready to make a contribution to building a more democratic and more just world.

Luz Santana / Dan Rothstein

Co-Directors, The Right Question Institute

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Question & answer


Major Blow to Obamacare Mandate: IRS Won – t Reject Tax Returns


HIT RUN BLOG

The tax agency has stopped requiring individual filers to indicate whether they maintained health coverage or paid the mandate penalty as required under the law

Question & answerCredit – Olivier Douliery/UPI/Newscom How much difference does a single line on a tax form make? For Obamacare’s individual mandate, the answer might be quite a lot.

Following President Donald Trump’s executive order instructing agencies to provide relief from the health law, the Internal Revenue Service appears to be taking a more lax approach to the coverage requirement.

The health law’s individual mandate requires everyone to either maintain qualifying health coverage or pay a tax penalty, known as a “shared responsibility payment.” The IRS was set to require filers to indicate whether they had maintained coverage in 2016 or paid the penalty by filling out line 61 on their form 1040s. Alternatively, they could claim exemption from the mandate by filing a form 8965.

For most filers, filling out line 61 would be mandatory. The IRS would not accept 1040s unless the coverage box was checked, or the shared responsibility payment noted, or the exemption form included. Otherwise they would be labeled “silent returns” and rejected.

Instead, however, filling out that line will be optional.

Earlier this month, the IRS quietly altered its rules to allow the submission of 1040s with nothing on line 61. The IRS says it still maintains the option to follow up with those who elect not to indicate their coverage status, although it’s not clear what circumstances might trigger a follow up.

But what would have been a mandatory disclosure will instead be voluntary. Silent returns will no longer be automatically rejected. The change is a direct result of the executive order President Donald Trump issued in January directing the government to provide relief from Obamacare to individuals and insurers, within the boundaries of the law.

“The recent executive order directed federal agencies to exercise authority and discretion available to them to reduce potential burden,” the IRS said in a statement to Reason. “Consistent with that, the IRS has decided to make changes that would continue to allow electronic and paper returns to be accepted for processing in instances where a taxpayer doesn’t indicate their coverage status.”

The tax agency says the change will reduce the health law’s strain on taxpayers. “Processing silent returns means that taxpayer returns are not systemically rejected, allowing them to be processed and minimizing burden on taxpayers, including those expecting a refund,” the IRS statement said.

The change may seem minor. But it makes it clear that following Trump’s executive order, the agency’s trajectory is towards a less strict enforcement process.

Although the new policy leaves Obamacare’s individual mandate on the books, it may make it easier for individuals to go without coverage while avoiding the penalty. Essentially, if not explicitly, it is a weakening of the mandate enforcement mechanism.

“It’s hard to enforce something without information,” says Ryan Ellis, a Senior Fellow at the Conservative Reform Network.

The move has already raised questions about its legality. Federal law gives the administration broad authority to provide exemptions from the mandate. But “it does not allow the administration not to enforce the mandate, which it appears they may be doing here,” says Michael Cannon, health policy director at the libertarian Cato Institute. “Unless the Trump administration maintains the mandate is unconstitutional, the Constitution requires them to enforce it.”

“The mandate can only be weakened by Congress,” says Ellis. “This is a change to how the IRS is choosing to enforce it. They will count on voluntary disclosure of non-coverage rather than asking themselves.”

The IRS notes that taxpayers are still required to pay the mandate penalty, if applicable. “Legislative provisions of the ACA law are still in force until changed by the Congress, and taxpayers remain required to follow the law and pay what they may owe‎,” the agency statement said.

Ellis says the new policy doesn’t fully rise to the level of declining to enforce the law. “If the IRS turns a blind eye to people’s status, that isn’t quite not enforcing it,” he says. “It’s more like the IRS wanting to maintain plausible deniability.”

Tax software companies are already making note of the change. Drake Software, which provides services to tax professionals, recently sent out a notice explaining the change in policy. As of February 3, the notice said, the IRS “will now accept an e-filed return that does not indicate either full-year coverage or an individual shared responsibility payment or does not include an exemption on Form 8965, as required by IRS instructions, Form 1040, line 61.”

The mandate is a key component of Obamacare’s coverage scheme, which is built on what experts sometimes describe as a “three-legged stool.” The law requires health insurers to sell to all comers regardless of health history, and offers subsidies to lower income individuals in order to offset the cost of coverage. In order to prevent people from signing up for coverage only after getting sick, it also requires most individuals to maintain qualifying coverage or face a tax penalty. While defending the health law in court, the Obama administration maintained that the mandate was essential to the structure of the law, designed to make sure that people did not take advantage of its protections.

In a 2012 case challenging the law’s insurance requirement, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual mandate was constitutional as a tax penalty. The IRS is in charge of collecting payments.

Some health policy experts have argued that the mandate was already too weak to be effective, as a result of the many exemptions that are included. A 2012 report by the consulting firm Milliman found that the mandate penalty offered only a modest financial incentives for families making 300-400 percent of the federal poverty line. More recently, health insurers have said that individuals signing up for coverage and then quickly dropping it after major health expenses is a key driver of losses, and rising health insurance premiums.

It’s too early to say whether the change will ultimately make any difference. But given the centrality of the mandate to the law’s coverage scheme and the unsteadiness of the law’s health insurance exchanges, with premiums rising and insurers scaling back participation, it is possible that even a marginal weakening of the mandate could cause further dysfunction. Health insurers have said the mandate is a priority, and asked for it to be strengthened. Weaker enforcement of the mandate could cause insurance carriers to further reduce participation in the exchanges. One major insurer, Humana, said today that it would completely exit Obamacare’s exchanges after this year.

It is also possible that congressional Republicans will make it moot by repealing much of the law, including its individual mandate, which, as a tax, can be taken down with just 51 Senate votes.

Regardless of its direct impact, however, the change may signal that the Trump administration intends to water down enforcement of the health law’s most controversial requirement, even if those steps are seemingly small. The Trump administration may not be tearing Obamacare down entirely, but it appears to be taking steps to weaken the law, however subtly, one line at a time.

Correction: The IRS did not reject silent returns last year, as this story originally indicated. The plan was to go into effect this year, for 2016 returns, but the IRS reversed course on February 3. Reason regrets the error.

Peter Suderman is features editor at Reason.


NJ211 – Need help? Start Here, question & answer.#Question #& #answer


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    Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

    Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

    For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

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    2 Answers

    Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

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    Apple has announced that Swift apps will be backward compatible with iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks. The WWDC app is written in Swift.

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    Do Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9/iOS 7 and lower?

    Will Swift-based applications work on OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)/iOS 7 and lower?

    For example, I have a machine running OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and I am wondering if an application I write in Swift will run on it.

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    Swift code can be deployed to OS X 10.9 and iOS 7.0. It will usually crash at launch on older OS versions.

    Answer any question