The Official Robert s Rules of Order Web Site, i have a


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Welcome! On this website you will find information about:

  • Robert’s Rules of Order and its up-to-date current edition, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) [click here for a summary list of Notable Changes in the 11th Edition];
  • the short book that provides a simple introduction to parliamentary procedure, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB);
  • the authors who have created the leading manual of parliamentary procedure; and
  • how you can useRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised to help your organization run more smoothly.

The CD-ROM version of the Eleventh Edition of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is now available. The CD is designed for installation on Windows PCs.

  • Full searchable texts of RONR (11th ed.) and RONRIB (2nd ed.), including all notes, charts, tables, lists, and indexes
  • Hyperlinked section and page cross-references — within each book and from one book to the other
  • Browse by chapter and section or subsection headings, or go directly to any page number
  • Search an entire book, or restrict to selected portions
  • Perform simple keyword or phrase searches, or use advanced search features: Boolean, wildcard, word forms/stems, proximity
  • Create your own bookmarks, highlighters, and notes

Additional bonus materials on the CD include:

  • Sample Rules for Electronic Meetings drafted by the authors of RONR to address various scenarios. Contains four complete sets of rules.
  • Understanding Secondary Amendments, a chapter written in the simplified style of RONRIB and designed as an intermediate step between the explanation of primary amendments in Chapter 5 of RONRIB and the full treatment of amendments in 12 of RONR
  • Ballot Voting rule summaries, checklists, tally sheets, and Tellers’ Report forms, including an interactive PDF form for elections that automatically calculates the number of votes cast and the majority
  • Timekeepers’ Guide with instructions, tables, and forms
  • Forms for motions, roll-call votes, regular and special meeting notices, and convention credentials and registration

The Robert’s Rules of Order CD-ROM may be purchased from American Legal Publishing.

If you have a question about what Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised prescribes for a particular situation, first check our Frequently Asked Questions — you may get a quick, accurate answer. Also see Official Interpretations clarifying questions of parliamentary law by the authors of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised.

If that doesn’t settle the matter, you can participate in our Question and Answer Forum.

We also have links that allow you to purchase copies of the books for yourself or your organization. (Click here to scroll to the “Add to Amazon.com Shopping Cart” buttons below.) I have a question and need an answer New to meeting rules? Get the best introduction:

The rules you need in a meeting

MADE SIMPLE AND EASY!

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief

GOING TO A MEETING? WANT TO KNOW HOW TO TAKE PART? LEARN QUICKLY AND EASILY! THIS SHORT, SIMPLE BOOK INCLUDES:

  • Sample dialogues to get you confidently through motions, nominations, elections, votes, debate, amendments, and more
  • Invaluable tips for keeping meetings orderly and on track
  • A chapter answering the most frequently asked questions

NOT SURE WHAT TO DO AT A MEETING?

  • Handy tables at the back of the book tell you just what to say

APPOINTED TO A COMMITTEE? CHOSEN AS A CONVENTION DELEGATE? ELECTED AS AN OFFICER OR BOARD MEMBER?

  • Chapters on each clearly explain your duties

To order now, click the Add In Brief to Amazon.com Shopping Cart button further below.

I have a question and need an answer The Eleventh Edition of

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised

The book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and novice club presidents alike, Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised is this country’s recognized guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings. It is the only book to have been maintained since 1876 under the continuing program established by General Henry M. Robert himself in cooperation with the official publishers of Robert’s Rules.

Available in hardcover, paperback, and deluxe editions, as well as in electronic form on CD-ROM.

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Department of Public Works, i have a question and need an answer.#I


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Copyright Department of Public Works. 2009. All Rights Reserved.

Mr. Jeremy Cronin

Advocate Sam Vukela

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256 MADIBA STREET, PRETORIA 012 406 1000/ 012 406 2000

New Call Center Number

NDPW moves swiftly to ensure improved wastewater systems

The National Department of Public Works (NDPW) has once again solidified its commitment to ensure that the condition of all the wastewater systems owned by the Department are improved. Read more

Public Works takes action to improve its wastewater facilities

It is not only municipalities and industry that discharge wastewater into KwaZulu-Natal’s rivers. wastewater systems in the province, two at police stations, seven at military installations, two at a. Read more

MINISTER NHLEKO ROLLS UP HIS SLEEVES AND CLEANS HIS FORMER SCHOOL

Public Works Minister Nkosinathi Nhleko MP has celebrated his international Nelson Mandela Day by leading a team of artisans from his Departmental workshop in renovating the. Read more

Minister Nhleko hand over letters to Hereford Farmers in TafelKop to more than 30 farmers

More than 30 emerging Black Farmers in Hereford Tafelkop, Limpopo, have been handed letters of intent to grant property rights by Minister of Public Works Hon Nkosinathi Nhleko, MP. Read more


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Do I need to have gallbladder surgery?

Asked by Maria, Beijing, China

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I have gallstones. They were described to me as a sandbag. My doctor recommended removing the gallbladder; however, I’m wondering whether there is an effective alternative to dissolve the gallstones? I would like to avoid surgery. Your input is highly appreciated.

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American Cancer Society

Expert answer

The gallbladder is a small sack in the right upper abdomen below the liver and above the head of the pancreas. It holds bile, a fluid secreted from the liver. It is common for water to be extracted from the bile in the gallbladder. This can lead to formation of sludge and hardened gallstones, a condition called cholelithiasis. Gallstones are most often asymptomatic, but they can cause abdominal pain and in severe cases, infection. They rarely death.

Gallstone disease is one of the most common of all digestive diseases. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 6.3 million men and 14.2 million women in the United States have gallbladder disease. There is marked variation in the prevalence between ethnic groups.

There are higher rates in western European, Hispanic and Native American populations and lower rates in eastern European, African American and Asian populations. This is mostly because of differences in diet.

Family history and genetics are important risk factors. Women are more likely to develop gallstones; having had a large number of children also increases risk. Those with obesity, high triglycerides and diabetes are at increased risk for gallstones. Rapid weight loss through crash dieting and weight reduction surgery is a risk factor for gallstones. Some doctors recommend these people take the drug ursodeoxycholic acid to prevent gallstone formation.

Studies suggest that a high intake of coffee, vegetable protein or polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are associated with a lower risk of gallstone disease.

Asymptomatic gallstones are extremely common, rarely progress to symptoms and should be left alone. These are often discovered through an abdominal ultrasound or a CT scan done for other reasons.

Patients with symptoms of gallbladder disease need to be treated. The most common symptom is biliary colic or a gallbladder attack, which is pressure or pain usually caused by stones pressing on the gallbladder sphincter as the gallbladder contracts in response to a fatty meal. The pain is usually constant despite the name colic. It commonly radiates to the back and right shoulder. It can be associated with sweating, nausea and vomiting. It can be severe and then plateau over an hour or so as the gallbladder relaxes.

Symptoms of a gallbladder attack are nonspecific and should be evaluated by a skilled clinician. They can be confused with symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, cardiac chest pain, esophageal chest pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, hepatitis and pancreatitis. Gallstones can be a cause of pancreatitis.

Patients with gallstones and pressure or pain often need surgery to remove the gallbladder.

This operation is called a cholecystectomy. In one study, 70 percent of people with these symptoms received surgery within two years.

For those with mild symptoms, drug therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is sometimes attempted to dissolve stones. Lithotripsy, which is an ultrasound therapy to break up stones, is also used. Both of these treatments are frequently not successful.

Both have decreased in popularity as minimally invasive laproscopic cholecystecomy has become commonly available. This is a surgery in which a small incision is made usually in the umbilicus (belly button), and the gallbladder is removed through a scope.

The presence of fever and constant abdominal pain can signal that the condition has progressed to acute cholecystitis. This is an infection that needs to be treated immediately and is often a surgical emergency.

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    The Human Difference: How Humans are Unique Compared to All Other Animals,


    The Human Difference: How Humans are Unique Compared to All Other Animals

    Are Humans Unique?

    Evolutionary biology proposes that humans evolved from ape-like ancestors. If this is true then we are nothing more than glorified apes. However, compared to our closest relatives , scientific research indicates that humans are unique on many fronts, including creativity, personality, abstract thinking, and moral judgment.

    The Bible makes the claim that humans alone are created in the image of God. 1 What exactly does this mean? Some have equated the image of God as being the physical characteristics of our bodies that make up the way we look. In fact, the Mormons have taken this interpretation to extreme by saying that God is just an exalted man, who has a body of flesh and bones. 1 However, the Bible says that both males and females are created in the image of God. 2 Unless God were a hermaphrodite (having both male and female sexual organs), this phrase could not refer to just physical characteristics. In addition, there are various verses in the Bible that describe God as having non-human physical characteristics, such as feathers and wings. 3 Should we think of God as being an overgrown chicken? Certainly not! God is so unlike humans physically, that the Bible often paints word pictures to give us a glimpse of what God is like.

    Creativity

    So if the image of God does not refer to physical characteristics, what does it refer to? It is certainly likely that part of the image of God refers to the ability of humans to be creative. Anthropology tells us that sophisticated works of art first appeared in the fossil record about 40,000-50,000 years ago, 4 at the time that moderns humans first appeared. No other species of animal, including the apes, are able to create and understand images of art and drawing.

    Consciousness

    Human consciousness is a mystery that has evaded decades of intensive research by neurophysiologists. According to a recent article:

    When an organism s neural pathways grow sufficiently complex, materialists insist, their firings are somehow accompanied by consciousness. But despite decades of effort by philosophers and neurophysiologists, no one has been able to come up with a remotely plausible explanation of how this happens–how the hunk of gray meat in our skull gives rise to private Technicolor experience. One distinguished commentator on the mind-body problem, Daniel Dennett, author of Consciousness Explained, has been driven to declare that there is really no such thing as consciousness–we are all zombies, though we re unaware of it. 5

    Personality

    Another thing that makes humans unique is personality. According to Joseph LeDoux, a neuroscientist at New York University:

    We have no idea how our brains make us who we are. There is as yet no neuroscience of personality. We have little understanding of how art and history are experienced by the brain. The meltdown of mental life in psychosis is still a mystery. In short, we have yet to come up with a theory that can pull all this together. 6

    Abstract thinking

    Is the human brain that much different from that of our closest relatives, the chimpanzees? According to Daniel J. Povinelli, from the University of Louisiana s New Iberia Research Center

    Humans constantly invoke unobservable phenomena and variables to explain why certain things are happening. Chimps operate in the world of concrete, tangible things that can be seen. The content of their minds is about the observable world. 7

    Just an answerInsight into how chimpanzees really think can be seen in some recent experiments performed by Dr. Povinelli. In these experiments, the researchers used the chimps natural begging gesture to examine how they really think about their world. They confronted the chimps with two familiar experimenters, one offering a piece of food and the other holding out an undesirable block of wood. As expected, the chimps had no trouble distinguishing between the block and the food and immediately gestured to the experimenter offering the food. Next, the researchers wanted to see if the chimps would be able to choose between a person who could see them and a person who could not. If the chimpanzees understood how other animals see, they would gesture only to the person who could see them. The researchers achieved the seeing/not-seeing contrast by having the two experimenters adopt different postures. In one test, one experimenter wore a blindfold over her eyes while the other wore a blindfold over her mouth. In the other tests, one of the experimenters wore a bucket over her head, placed her hands over her eyes or sat with her back turned to the chimpanzee. All these postures were modeled after the behaviors that had been observed during the chimpanzees spontaneous play. The results of the experiments were astonishing. In the tests involving blindfolds, buckets and hands over the eyes–the apes entered the lab and paused but then were just as likely to gesture to the person who could not see them as to the person who could. In several cases, the chimps gestured to the person who could not see them and then, when nothing happened, gestured again, as if puzzled by the fact that the experimenter did not respond. In the case of experimenters facing with their backs to the chimps, they performed as if they knew that those facing way from them could not see and offer them food. However, subsequent experiments proved that the chimps had merely responded to conditioning from the initial experiments, since they had only received food from those experimenters who faced them. This was proven by having experimenters facing away from the chimps, but then turning to look over their shoulders. The chimps were just as likely to gesture to the experimenters facing away as the one who turned to look at them. Chimpanzees have no clue that humans must face them in order to see. It is obvious from these experiments that chimpanzees lack even a simple understanding of how their world works, but merely react to conditioning from directly observable events. 8

    Other researchers have noted that chimpanzees do not understand the cause and effect of their actions. Apes will climb onto a box to reach fruit, but if the box is absent, will place on the ground beneath the fruit a sheet of paper and stand upon it. 9

    A more recent study examined the ability of human infants and young chimpanzees to help human adults. 10 18-month-old human infants and young chimpanzees were presented with four categories of problems: out-of-reach objects, access thwarted by a physical obstacle, achieving a wrong (correctable) result, and using a wrong (correctable) means. While human infants could perform all four tasks, chimpanzees could only perform the first task. As in previous studies, chimpanzees were unable to discern when an individual failed at a simple task and how he could help. The researchers concluded:

    A number of theorists have claimed that human beings cooperate with one another and help one another (especially non-kin) in ways not found in other animal species (26 28). This is almost certainly so, and the current results demonstrate that even very young children have a natural tendency to help other persons solve their problems, even when the other is a stranger and they receive no benefit at all. 10

    Body, soul, spirit

    Besides the rather obvious differences in the way animals process information in their brains, the Bible (and science) confirm that there are major differences in the ways humans make moral judgments (animals don t make such judgments, as we shall see). Part of what is meant by the term in the image of God can be found in chapters immediately following its first usage (Genesis 1) in the Bible. Both Adam and Eve had a personal relationship with God in the Garden of Eden. Such a personal relationship is not described, nor seen, for any other animal species. It is the presence of a spirit that was instilled into humans 11 that separates us from the animals. There are three kinds of life that God has created in this universe:


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