Questions Answered about Radiant Barrier – Reflective Insulation, all questions answered.#All #questions

Radiant Barrier

How does Radiant Barrier work?

Radiant Barrier is unlike mass insulation which only slows down or resists heat transfer. Radiant Barrier reflects heat. Heat always goes cold by natural law the problem is how to keep the heat in in the winter and how to keep it out in the summer. There are three ways in which heat goes from warm spaces to cold spaces: CONDUCTION is direct heat flow through a solid object such as a wall or a ceiling. CONVECTION is heat movement through air, occurring when air is warmed. The warm expands, becoming less dense and rising. RADIATION is the movement of heat rays across air spaces from one warm object to a cooler object. The heat we feel from a wood stove or a quartz space heater is radiant heat. ALL OBJECTS AND BODIES GIVE OFF RADIANT HEAT. Even the insulation in your attic gives off radiant heat to the cold attic space in the winter, and to the living space in the summer. Regular insulation won t stop radiant heat loss. Radiant heat must be REFLECTED with a radiant barrier.

What is the R Value of Radiant Barrier?

The R value depends on the number and size of the airspaces surrounding the Radiant Barrier and on the direction of the heat flow. Since Radiant Barrier is usually installed on top of existing mass insulation, its R-value is a moot point. It is Radiant Barrier s ability to reflect heat that makes it such an energy saver.

How does Radiant Barrier keep me warmer in the winter?

Just like wrapping a baked potato in aluminum foil keeps a potato warm longer by holding the heat in, covering your attic insulation with Radiant Barrier holds heat in the house. Another analogy would be that Radiant Barrier in the winter works just like a space blanket, which, although very thin and lightweight, holds your body heat in. A thin space blanket can keep you warmer than several heavy blankets.

OKAY, Radiant Barrier keeps heat in in the winter, how can it keep heat out in the summer?

Just like a space suit, Radiant Barrier reflects the sun s heat before it can warm up the insulation in your attic. When the insulation stays cooler, your house will stay cooler. It helps to understand how Radiant Barrier will work for you if you think of other things that work in much the same way. ASTRONAUTS SPACE SUITS keep body heat and reflect the sun s heat away. THERMOS BOTTLES keep hot things hot and cold things cold. They are almost perfect insulators. The tight seal and air space prohibit heat transfer by conduction and convection. The reflective surfaces inhibit radiation heat transfer. If the bottle starts out hot, it stays hot because very little heat is transferred to the cooler outside. If it starts out cold, it stays cold because very little heat is transferred from the warmer outside.

What if Radiant Barrier collects dust over a period of time? Will it still work?

This very issue has been studied by research institutes. Most attics don t accumulate enough dust to affect Radiant Barrier s ability to save energy costs. Thousands of homes and structures have had Radiant Barrier installed for as long as ten years or more with no significant accumulation.

Won t my roof get hotter when I have Radiant Barrier in my attic?

No. Radiant Barrier has been used extensively in the south, showing no difference in roof temperatures, as confirmed by field tests.

Do I have to take out my old insulation to put Radiant Barrier in?

No. Radiant Barrier actually makes your present insulation more effective.

Where do you install Radiant Barrier?

Radiant Barrier can be laid over your present insulation like a blanket or stapled under your rafters or crawl space.

What about foil-faced fiberglass? Isn t it just as good as Radiant Barrier?

No. The foil on the fiberglass is in direct contact with the attic floor. Aluminum foil becomes more conductive when in contact with a solid surface. The air space facing the reflective surface is of primary importance.

I already have plenty of insulation in my attic. Do I really need Radiant Barrier?

Regardless of how much insulation you have in your attic, adding Radiant Barrier will save on your heating and cooling expense, and keep you much more comfortable. Energy savings for heating and cooling can be as much as 17%, depending on a number of factors, including climate, building configuration, materials used, site, family size and lifestyle. Your Radiant Barrier dealer has been trained to evaluate your home or business and advise you of your savings potential.

Has Radiant Barrier been tested by a qualified independent laboratory or government agency?

The Florida Solar Energy Center at Cape Canaveral has tested radiant barriers in both small scale laboratory and full scale building models. Their results indicate that radiant barriers provide significant resistance to heat transfer. Current tests conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the University of Mississippi support the findings of the Florida Solar Energy Center. Northeastern Illinois University conducted winter tests in residential and commercial structures using infra-red thermograph photography. The photos showed significant resistance to heat transfer over the regular insulation.

Will dust collecting on the top of the product hurt its effectiveness

over a period of time?

A1 Aluminum foil exposed in a vertical position since 1929 to the dust and fumes in the Heat Measurements Laboratory, M.I.T. Samples of this foil have been removed from time to time and the emissivity determined. Over a period of 10 years no appreciable change in emissivity was found. American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers Journal Section, Jan. 1940, Professor Wilkes, M.I.T.

A2 Thin layers of dust readily visible to the eye do not cause very serious lowering in the reflective power. The appearance of the surface is not a reliable guide as to its reflectivity for radiant heat, and foil which appears dark or discolored may have lost little in insulating value if the surface film is thin. -The National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Letter Circular – 535.

Will the aluminum corrode and lose its effectiveness?

A1 “Hundreds of samples of aluminum foil have been stored in the laboratory for various periods of time up to 10 years with no visible signs of deterioration. American Society of Heating Air Conditioning Engineers Journal Section

A2 Aluminum is highly resistant to the effect of corrosion… Aluminum is constantly being used where it is exposed to weather, salt spray and other conditions, which would adversely affect most metals. The United States Rubber Co. Booklet, Serving You Through Science, Page 5.

Do I need a radiant barrier if my home is already well insulated?

A1 SUMMER: “A radiant barrier system can stop 97 percent of the thermal radiation across an attic space. If it is not stopped, that radiant energy would be absorbed by the ceiling insulation and eventually be transferred to the living space below. The Solar Collector, Quarterly Newsletter of the Florida Solar Energy Center.

“The heat storage capacity of reflective insulation is low. As a result, it does not store heat during summer days, only to pass it on down into the rooms of the house from the attic at night when coolness is most apt to be desired from the point of view of sleeping comfort. Progressive Architecture, Nov. 1949, Page 76.

A2 WINTER: CONCLUSIONS: Reflective foil retrofitted to fiberglass insulated…buildings is demonstrably effective in reducing heat loss… Installation of foil in uninsulated buildings would show even more pronounced reduction in heat loss. Effects Of Reflective Foil On Heat Loss in Attic Floors and Metal Building Installations, Northeastern Illinois University, Prof. Charles Shabica, May 20, 1986.

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Medical Questions Answered Free, Ask Medical Questions, all questions answered.#All #questions #answered

Medical Questions

Welcome to the correct, a place for your medical questions answered correctly. Please consult a doctor or a medical clinic before using any of the information present on this page.

More often than not, we just do not have time or shy away from visiting a doctor than anything else that comes in the way of taking proper precautions and timely steps for some health related problems. Here on, we offer free medical information and medical help.

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Find all the categories of the medical issues listed below and clicking on these categories will take you to the questions we have answered. You can consult your doctor after reading these medical information, so that you have a background of what you are or your loved one is suffering from and know what questions to ask about your problems to the doctor.

Having some kind of basic information of health problems always helps. You can not only ask a medical question directly to your doctors, but can also research for the information online or can go to forums and check out what patients or other doctors have to say or put forth. You reduce your chances of being taken for a ride and plus, you can exactly know how things are taking place in your body.

We keep updating and as of now, we have over one thousand articles online. The categorization ensures you save a lot of time in finding the right matter. You will find answers to almost all questions related to one topic under the category. Find symptoms, causes and treatments too for various diseases and problems on The content presented here is written in a lucid way and is explained in a way that even non-medical people can understand the basics of the problem.

You can bank on us for giving the appropriate health information, if not solutions; but we do advice to follow up with your practitioner. We are here for assisting you in the best and easiest possible way.

You will find a search bar at the upper right corner of the site where you will get search results from our site or else Google too, whatever you choose to. And you will find the same search bar on every other page of an article too.

What is the maximum value for an int32? Stack Overflow, all questions


Python has arbitrary precision integers. But in Python 2, they are mapped to C integers. So you can do this:

So Python switches to long when the integer gets bigger than 2^31 -1

Well, it has 32 bits and hence can store 2^32 different values. Half of those are negative.

The solution is 2,147,483,647

And the lowest is −2,147,483,648.

(Notice that there is one more negative value.)

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At this point, I’d say the easiest mnemonic is to type “” TAB “maximum int32” into Chrome.

There is a recursion –> stack overflow joke in there somewhere. I’m just not that geeky.

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The easiest way to do this for integers is to use hexadecimal, provided that there isn’t something like Int.maxInt(). The reason is this:

Max unsigned values

Signed values, using 7F as the max signed value

Signed values, using 80 as the max signed value

How does this work? This is very similar to the binary tactic, and each hex digit is exactly 4 bits. Also, a lot of compilers support hex a lot better than they support binary.

So 7F is equal to 01111111 / 7FFF is equal to 0111111111111111. Also, if you are using this for “insanely-high constant”, 7F. is safe hex, but it’s easy enough to try out 7F and 80 and just print them to your screen to see which one it is.

0x7FFF + 0x0001 = 0x8000, so your loss is only one number, so using 0x7F. usually isn’t a bad tradeoff for more reliable code, especially once you start using 32-bits or more

(is there a minimum length for answers?)

First write out 47 twice, (you like Agent 47, right?), keeping spaces as shown (each dash is a slot for a single digit. First 2 slots, then 4)

Think you have 12 in hand (because 12 = a dozen). Multiply it by 4 , first digit of Agent 47’s number, i.e. 47 , and place the result to the right of first pair you already have

Then multiply 12 by 3 (in order to make second digit of Agent 47’s number, which is 7 , you need 7 – 4 = 3 ) and put the result to the right of the first 2 pairs, the last pair-slot

Finally drag digits one by one from your hand starting from right-most digit (2 in this case) and place them in the first empty slot you get

There you have it! For negative limit, you can think of that as 1 more in absolute value than the positive limit.

Practise a few times, and you will get the hang of it!

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The easiest way to remember is to look at std::numeric_limits int ::max()

If you happen to know your ASCII table off by heart and not MaxInt :

!GH6G = 21 47 48 36 47

The best rule to memorize it is:

Also it is easier to remember 5 pairs than 10 digits.

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Just remember that 2^(10*x) is approximately 10^(3*x) – you’re probably already used to this with kilobytes/kibibytes etc. That is:

Since an int uses 31 bits (+

1 bit for the sign), just double 2^30 to get approximately 2 billion. For an unsigned int using 32 bits, double again for 4 billion. The error factor gets higher the larger you go of course, but you don’t need the exact value memorised (If you need it, you should be using a pre-defined constant for it anyway). The approximate value is good enough for noticing when something might be a dangerously close to overflowing.

Interestingly, Int32.MaxValue has more characters than 2,147,486,647.

But then again, we do have code completion,

So I guess all we really have to memorize is Int3 period M enter , which is only 6 characters to type in visual studio.

UPDATE For some reason I was downvoted. The only reason I can think of is that they didn’t understand my first statement.

“Int32.MaxValue” takes at most 14 characters to type. 2,147,486,647 takes either 10 or 13 characters to type depending on if you put the commas in or not.

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Well, aside from jokes, if you’re really looking for a useful memory rule, there is one that I always use for remembering big numbers.

You need to break down your number into parts from 3-4 digits and remember them visually using projection on your cell phone keyboard. It’s easier to show on a picture:

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As you can see, from now on you just have to remember 3 shapes, 2 of them looks like a Tetris L and one looks like a tick. Which is definitely much easier than memorizing a 10-digit number.

When you need to recall the number just recall the shapes, imagine/look on a phone keyboard and project the shapes on it. Perhaps initially you’ll have to look at the keyboard but after just a bit of practice, you’ll remember that numbers are going from top-left to bottom-right so you will be able to simply imagine it in your head.

Just make sure you remember the direction of shapes and the number of digits in each shape (for instance, in 2147483647 example we have a 4-digit Tetris L and a 3-digit L).

You can use this technique to easily remember any important numbers (for instance, I remembered my 16-digit credit card number etc.).

Top 8 Questions about Becoming a LuLaRoe Consultant – Mompreneur Advice, all

Top 8 Questions about Becoming a LuLaRoe Consultant

Wondering what its like starting a LuLaRoe business? Want to know what the LuLaRoe Consultant Cost is to start? Here s the answers to the Top 8 Questions women are asking about becoming a LuLaRoe Consultant and getting started with LuLaRoe:

1. What is the LuLaRoe Consultant Cost to start up?

The cost to purchase the LuLaRoe Start Up Kit is approximately $5,000 $6,000. Your initial inventory will cost about $4,900 and you will need to have a budget of about $500 for miscellaneous startup costs (like hangers, extra closet space, business cards, a website, etc).

2. What is in the LuLaRoe Start Up Kit?

The LuLaRoe starter kit varies, but generally includes:

75 Cassie Skirts, 58 Julia Dresses, 75 Irma Tops, 78 Classic T­ee s, and 70 pairs of Leggings. You will also receive 25 items of your choice FREE when you purchase 300 items or more in your initial inventory.

Many LuLaRoe consultants suggest choosing a higher priced item as your free item that is an easy up-sell like the Monroe Kimono. This will yield about $1,100 in extra profit once you ve sold them all. You will have a total of 381 items sent to you. The retail value of all these items together is approximately $12,500.

Wholesale prices range from $8.50 $31 and suggested retail prices range from $18-$65. Items come in a variety of patterns, colors, prints, fabrics styles and you will receive an assortment of clothing and body styles you choose. Adult sizes range from 0-26 and girls sizes range from 2-14.

LuLaRoe pays for all costs to ship the items to you and orders arrive within 3 business days from the date of your payment.

[Update: The packages now vary, please contact LuLaRoe about what they currently offer. The above gives you a basic idea of what to expect.]

3. What is the average LuLaRoe Consultant Income?

If you are wondering how much do lularoe consultants make, it varies and depends on how many parties you are willing to host each month. Here s some details:

Average item sales per party 20 items

Average LuLaRoe profit per item $15

Average profit per party = $300

Number of parties to host until you ve made back your original investment = Approx 20 parties

That s not a bad return on your investment! How many other companies can you start where your initial investment will be paid back within several months?

4. How long will it take to pay back your LuLaRoe Start Up Kit Investment?

The answer to this question depends on how many parties you host per month. If you want to have a more casual business, aim for one party per week. If you re a real go-getter and want to build a large following, aim for 3 parties per week. You can host parties both online (via Facebook or your website, etc) or in person at your friends homes or local offices during their lunch hour.

Host 1 party per week = Pay off investment in approx 4 months

Host 2 parties per week = Pay off investment in approx 2 months

Host 3 parties per week = Pay off investment in approx 7 weeks

The LuLaRoe commission, or profit margin, is approximately 35-60% profit per item.

5. Where can I find lularoe display ideas?

Great places to find LuLaRoe display ideas are browsing through Pinterest (here s a great LuLaRoe business board and here s another). You can also browse youtube for LuLaRoe display ideas. Here s our complete list of LuLaRoe Supplies for your reference.

Some Unique display ideas for Lularoe items are:
  • Vintage suitcase for Leggings
  • Manequins for displaying Dresses
  • Woven baskets for Classit Tees
  • Have assistants wearing the clothing at the party
  • Print large photos of women wearing the items and hang them around the party

6. What are some tips and lularoe marketing ideas?

Also, once you ve joined you can be added to the LuLaRoe Reddit Group where you can swap marketing ideas and selling tips with other consultants.

Here s also a few other articles about marketing:

7. What is the lularoe leadership bonus plan?

According to LuLaRoe, the Leadership Bonus Plan aims to encourage LuLaRoe consultants to build their own businesses and increase their own personal income by becoming leaders and referring new consultants to the business. You can earn 5% of sales for each consultant you refer for life when you order a minimum of 175 in any given month. Here s a great video detailing the Leadership Bonus Plan

8. What is the lularoe failure rate?

In all my research, I was unable to find the failure rate for LuLaRoe Consultants. To me, it seems like most women are successful in selling their initial LuLaRoe inventory (at different rates) and continue being successful after that. The clothing is super comfortable, trendy and perfect for women of all sizes. My guess is that the women who are failing are the women who lose interest or get frustrated easily. If you are someone who can persevere, I believe you will be successful in selling these awesome clothes!

Currently, there are over 100,000 LuLaRoe Consultants! [Updated January, 13, 2017]

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Get size of all tables in database – Stack Overflow, all questions

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If you are using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS), instead of running a query (which in my case returned duplicate rows) you can run a standard report.

  1. Right click on the database
  2. Navigate to Reports > Standard Reports > Disk Usage By Table

Note: The database compatibility level must be set to 90 or above for this to work correctly. See

sp_spaceused can get you information on the disk space used by a table, indexed view, or the whole database.

This reports the disk usage information for the ContactInfo table.

To use this for all tables at once:

You can also get disk usage from within the right-click Standard Reports functionality of SQL Server. To get to this report, navigate from the server object in Object Explorer, move down to the Databases object, and then right-click any database. From the menu that appears, select Reports, then Standard Reports, and then “Disk Usage by Partition: [DatabaseName]”.

After some searching, I could not find an easy way to get information on all of the tables. There is a handy stored procedure named sp_spaceused that will return all of the space used by the database. If provided with a table name, it returns the space used by that table. However, the results returned by the stored procedure are not sortable, since the columns are character values.

The following script will generate the information I’m looking for.

For all tables ,use..(adding from the comments of Paul)

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Above queries are good for finding the amount of space used by the table (indexes included), but if you want to compare how much space is used by indexes on the table use this query:

If you need to calculate exactly the same numbers, that are on ‘table properties – storage’ page in SSMS, you need to count them with the same method as it done in SSMS (works for sql server 2005 and above . and also works correctly for tables with LOB fields – because just counting “used_pages” is not enought to show accurate index size):

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This will give you the sizes, and record counts for each table.

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A small change on Mar_c’s answer, since I have been going back to this page so often, ordered by most row’s first:

For get all table size in one database you can use this query :

And you can change it to insert all of result into temp table and after that select from temp table.

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I added a few more columns on top of marc_s answer:

We use table partitioning and had some trouble with the queries provided above due to duplicate records.

For those who need this, you can find below the query as run by SQL Server 2014 when generating the “Disk usage by table” report. I assume it also works with previous versions of SQL Server.

It works like a charm.

My post is only relevant for SQL Server 2000 and has been tested to work in my environment.

This code accesses All possible databases of a single instance, not just a single database.

I use two temp tables to help collect the appropriate data and then dump the results into one ‘Live’ table.

Returned data is: DatabaseName, DatabaseTableName, Rows (in the Table), data (size of the table in KB it would seem), entry data (I find this useful for knowing when I last ran the script).

Downfall to this code is the ‘data’ field is not stored as an int (The chars ‘KB’ are kept in that field), and that would be useful (but not totally necessary) for sorting.

Hopefully this code helps someone out there and saves them some time!

In case you need to know, the rsp_DatabaseTableSizes table was created through:

Vogue: 73 Questions Answered By Your Favorite Celebs Video Series, all questions

73 Questions Answered By Your Favorite Celebs

Season 3

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YouTube star Liza Koshy invites Vogue into her strangely familiar apartment and answers 73 Questions. Liza shows off her shrine to her alter egos Jet Packinski and Helga, and shares her tips for becoming one of the YouTube elite.

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Just in time for Halloween, Chrissy Teigen invites Vogue into her beautiful (and haunted?) Beverly Hills home and answers 73 Questions. In this episode, presented by the Google Assistant, Chrissy tells us some of her greatest fears, her worst habits, what life is like while John Legend is on tour and much more. Featuring a special guest appearance by baby Luna!

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While visiting New York City, ‘Star Wars: The Last Jedi’ star Daisy Ridley invites Vogue inside her hotel room to answer 73 Questions. Daisy spits some bars from Eminem’s ‘Lose Yourself’ and shows off what she can do with a real lightsaber.

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Zac Efron, star of the upcoming film “The Greatest Showman,” invites Vogue in and answers 73 Questions. Zac tells us about his 1964 Mustang, his best celebrity impressions, and that time he swam with a wild tiger shark.

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Black-ish star Tracee Ellis Ross is on top of the world. Her acclaimed performance as Dr. Rainbow Johnson has taken the veteran actress to never-before-seen heights. After winning a Golden Globe and garnering an Emmy nomination, Tracee graciously invites Vogue into her home to take a shot at answering 73 Questions.

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When it comes to Vogue, legendary supermodel Cindy Crawford has done it all. The one thing the prolific cover star hasn’t done yet is answer 73 Questions. Cindy invites Vogue inside her Malibu home and discusses her family, her all-time favorite photo shoot and gives her best advice for up-and-coming models.

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Supermodel Gigi Hadid has a schedule packed full of flights and photoshoots. In-between trips from New York to LA, Gigi invites Vogue to IMG’s offices where she takes a shot at answering 73 Questions. Gigi tells us who her girl-crush is, shows off her boxing skills and ranks her favorite Taylor Swift songs.

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“Quantico” and “Baywatch” star Priyanka Chopra is taking over the world. Just a short time after stunning on the Met Gala carpet, Priyanka Chopra invites Vogue in and answers 73 unexpected questions. Priyanka tells us what her favorite thing about America is, her crush on Tupac, and that time she ate worms!

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On the eve of the Met Gala, “Master of None” co-creator Aziz Ansari makes us a smoothie while answering 73 unexpected questions. Aziz talks about his childhood crush on Elaine Benes, his displeasure with the term “foodie,” and tries to rank his favorite Kanye West albums.

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Whether it’s acting, singing, or appearing on the cover of Vogue, Selena Gomez is doing it all. Instagram’s biggest star invites Vogue in and takes a shot at answering 73 unexpected questions. Selena reveals the last movie that made her cry, the food she can’t live without, and her favorite jingle of all-time.

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Before supermodel Ashley Graham hits the runway at New York Fashion Week she invites us in for some tea, and takes a shot at answering 73 unexpected questions. Ashley reveals how she met her husband, which product she absolutely cannot live without, and how she travels to and from Fashion Week without hassle. Lexus provides courtesy transportation for designers, models, editors, retailers and industry professionals as the official automotive sponsor of New York Fashion Week.

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Lena Dunham takes us inside her colorful home and talks about how she met Jack Antonoff, never wearing a bra, and what she would tell Donald Trump if she had a minute of his time. The final season of Girls returns to HBO on 2/12.

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Neil Patrick Harris takes us inside his home and shows off his personal movie theater, the actual booth from “How I Met Your Mother” and performs a hit song from the “Hamilton” soundtrack.

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Emma Stone shows off her fabulous dance moves, belts out a killer Britney Spears impression, and admits to crying in front of Tom Hanks.

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Simone Biles takes us to her Olympic training facility and talks about her dream date with Zac Efron, the taste of her gold medals, and dealing with the paparazzi.

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Kendall Jenner opens up about growing up in front of the cameras, who her favorite sister is, and what part of her body she wishes people paid more attention to.

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On the set of her clothing line debut, Serena Williams talks about the most romantic thing a guy has ever done for her, that time she tried body bowling, and the one sport she’s actually bad at.

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James Corden opens up about his biggest fear, his dream guest lineup, and shows viewers how he gets around the office in the latest installment of 73 Questions.

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6 of your questions about grand juries, answered, MSNBC, all questions answered.#All

6 of your questions about grand juries, answered

Grand juries have been thrust into the national spotlight in the past few weeks, after panels in Staten Island, New York and Ferguson, Missouri decided not to indict police officers in the deaths of unarmed black men.

In the wake of these cases, Seema Iyer , a practicing attorney and legal analyst, answered some of msnbc s questions about grand juries and how they work. Catch Seema Iyer, Esq. online tackling legal questions every Tuesday at 11 a.m. ET on .

What’s the difference between a grand jury and a regular jury?

A grand jury (12 to 23 people) is a body that investigates criminal conduct. Federal, state and county prosecutors utilize grand juries to decide whether probable cause exists to support criminal charges.

​A regular jury (6 to 12 people) aka a petit jury hears only trial cases. A regular jury decides the facts. The judge presiding over the trial decides the law. A petit jury decides:

  • In criminal cases whether the prosecution has proved their case beyond a reasonable doubt.
  • In civil cases by a preponderance of evidence ( which means 51% )​.

In criminal cases the decision must be unanimous.

How is the grand jury chosen, and how does the grand jury process function?

Grand jurors are chosen from the same group of people as trial jurors. When you receive notice for jury service you could be called for either one. The judge will ask very few questions, unlike when selecting a petit jury, when the judge and lawyers ask many questions.

Grand jurors will only be excused “for cause,” meaning they cannot be fair and impartial. Of course jurors, in general, are often excused for logistical reasons (scheduling, etc). Grand jurors are expected to serve anywhere from a month to a year on average. In most cases it s a few months.​ And they sit a few days a week.

Grand juries hear cases from prosecutors all day long, and all different types of criminal cases. Usually the cases are felonies. The grand jury physically sits in a college lecture type of room in the same building as the prosecutor s office. There is no judge present, just court officers and grand jury clerks. Prosecutors will come in, present evidence in the form of witnesses, documents, photos and video/audio. This is done often over the course of a day, a week or longer.

In most cases the accused has an opportunity not required by law, unlike a jury trial to testify, but is only questioned by the prosecutor. The defense attorney cannot question. But the grand jurors can submit questions to the prosecutor to ask witnesses.

At the close of evidence, the prosecutor reads legal instructions and the law to jurors. The grand jury may then vote an indictment, also known as “true bill.” To vote an indictment you only need a quorum. For example in the Ferguson case, quorum would have been nine out of 12 grand jurors. Most grand juries are 12 to 23 people.

In the cases of Ferguson and Staten Island, why did these cases go to a grand jury, instead of the prosecutor charging the officers themselves? When and why does a case go to a grand jury?

When a felony is committed, here is what can happen:

1. Without an arrest (when you do not physically have the perpetrator or know who he or she is) evidence can be presented​ to a grand jury. The indictment is called a “no arrest indictment,” which forms the basis of an arrest warrant, so when the suspect is found and arrested he or she has already been indicted.

2. ​After a person is arrested, the case is immediately within a week, unless time is waived presented to a grand jury.

3. After a person is arrested, he or she is not held in jail because the district attorney is investigating and unsure whether the case will be presented to a grand jury, or reduced to a misdemeanor, and a plea offer may be made thereby waiving a grand jury, or the case will be dismissed.

4. There is no arrest, you know who the perpetrator is and the case is presented to a grand jury. An arrest only occurs if a grand jury indicts.

In the cases of Ferguson and Staten Island, both went to a grand jury because that is standard practice when a case involves a police officer. It s not the law, just the practice. What is commonly said is that “no one would ever be a police officer if it was otherwise.” I believe these cases went to a grand jury because the accused was a police officer, had qualified immunity and the incident occurred while the police officer was on duty.

What are the requirements for a grand jury to decide to indict someone?

The only requirement is that probable cause exists to support criminal charges against the accused person. In essence, the grand juror must feel there is enough evidence against the person to proceed to trial. It is a very low standard. You could have one witness, a victim, come in and testify without any corroborating physical evidence and get ​an indictment. That is rare but it does occur in some cases of sexual assault with victims who don t approach authorities until many years after an incident.

New York Judge Sol Wachtler once famously said that a grand jury would “indict a ham sandwich.” If it’s that common for a grand jury to indict, why is it rare that police officers are charged?

With regard to police officers, they have “qualified immunity.” A police officer is allowed to use deadly force in many more circumstances than a lay person, something the grand jury is instructed on. A police officer is allowed to use a gun; the incident occurred while they were engaged in official duties;​ and because a police officer is trained in law,” he or she can respond to criminal accusations far better than a lay person. Police officers will also have a team of lawyers coaching them because they are represented by union attorneys who are often former prosecutors.

​Since a police department is an agency of the prosecutor s office​ there is an inherent conflict of interest. Imagine trying to indict your boss, colleague or sibling.

In light of the outcry after the Ferguson and Staten Island grand jury decisions, is there any chance the law around grand juries would ever be changed or updated?

I hate to use this line but I think it would take “an act of Congress” perhaps state congressional action. I think there is a possibility for reform around a new law that would state, “if a police officer is accused of a crime a special prosecutor must be appointed to oversee the investigation.”

As a whole, there really isn t anything wrong with the grand jury system. If you are asking whether the system would change in that there would be a standard arrest even if allegations involved a police officer, I think not. Like I said, no one would ever become a police officer if they were in fear of being arrested any time they discharged their weapon.​

How to Get FREE HDTV (and All Your DTV Questions Answered): 5

How to Get FREE HDTV (and All Your DTV Questions Answered)

All questions answered

How you can get free HDTV with higher quality than available on your cable or satellite provider.

(Free after initial start-up costs, if you do not have an antenna already – generally, a complete setup can pay for itself in the cost of 2 months of cable or satellite)

The only difference in broadcasting is the content of the signal and the decoding process.

Partially true, but not for every circumstance. You can use your same TV to view digital TV, but if it is an older TV is will not be capable of displaying the true quality of an HD signal, and it will require a converter box (roughly $50). This would be like a digital cable box, or a vcr that does the current analogue decoding for you.

If you own a new LCD/plasma TV, chances are it includes a digital tuner already (ATSC/DVB-t, depending on your location).

Check its specs before you go looking for a converter box.

(Note that some converter boxes are SD only, look for a converter box that outputs in HD if you have an HD ready tv)

These terms are commonly mixed up.

Digital TV is the same as the ordinary analogue broadcast television today, just in a different signal/processing format. (480i). Because of the superior nature of digital TV, you will get a perfect picture every time. (Or below a certain signal level, no picture at all. Much around the distance that analogue tv gets too fuzzy to watch)

HDtv is also purely digital (perfect picture every time), however it can go up to much higher resolutions, such as 1280×720 progressive (720p) or 1920×1080 interleaved (1080i).

1080i has roughly double the pixels of 720p, but half the framerate.

Also, just because a channel is broadcasting at an HD resolution, does not mean the picture is HD. For example, a show from the 90’s cannot be broadcast in HD without remastering it, so it is probably standard definition (SD) stretched to fit the HD resolution. (“upconverted”)

Cable and satellite used to be better than antenna simply because analogue broadcasts degraded quickly as distance increased from transmitters, and cable/sat companies could get optimum reception and send it to everyone.

With new digital broadcasting, you get perfect picture with as low as 20% signal (with a new tuner) – roughly about the same point when analogue broadcasts were too fuzzy to watch.

Cable and sat may have it beat in terms of offering quantity, but antenna tv now has them beat in quality. Generally the cable/sat companies will take the exact same broadcast stream and compress it to send over their network to you. The result? Decreased quality. With an antenna, you get the pure broadcast, exactly as it was intended to be viewed.

Step 1: Check Your Availability.

All questions answered

You can get FREE (after initial “build”) high definition television in most areas. In fact, if you’re within 120 miles of a tv station, chances are, you’ll be able to get their channel.

What TV stations are around you, and broadcasting.

If you’re in a semi-urban area, you’re probably in an excellent area.

If you have very little around you, unfortunately, this will not work for you.

If you’re in an area like Toronto or Buffalo, you can access two market’s worth of channels, giving you 25 or more channels.

Visit and put in your latitude and longitude to see what TV stations are around you, and their approximate distance away.

If you don’t know your latitude and longitude, visit this site:

which will give the latitude and longitude of anywhere you click.

Just move around and zoom in to your location to get the most precise value.

Step 2: Obtain an Antenna and Required Materials

All questions answered

Despite what popular marketing wants you to think these days, ANY ANTENNA WILL WORK FOR DTV/HDTV BROADCAST RECEPTION. (Yes, even that 50 year old antenna you havent touched for 30 years!)

The only antennas which will not do much good are VHF-only, if digital broadcasts are mostly in the UHF spectrum for your area (Channel number above 13 from the broadcast search in the previous step means it is in the UHF band).

The Channel Master 4221, Channel Master 4228, and an example of an antenna you may very well have already on your house and you never use.

Almost all HDTV’s (LCD/plasma) ship with a built in digital tuner. (ATSC for North America and a select few countries, DVB-t for the majority of the rest of the world).

If you do not (i.e. you have an old CRT tv or a new tv, but it doesnt have ATSC/DVB-t), no problem: you can get converter boxes for about $50 for a CRT tube, or many dvd recorders/DVR’s are including ATSC or DVB-t tuners if you wish to go that route.

Note that a converter box which does not have HDMI/component will most likelt not output in HD, but downconvert the picture.

Check out the Gray-Hoverman antenna:

It’s designed to be free and “open-source” welcoming people to make their own tweaks and get the best antenna possible. You can find the official plans at the site above, or you can read the antenna development forums at Digital Home Canada to see what changes people have made and what’s the best type for you to make.

Step 3: Hook Everything Up.

All questions answered

Once you have your antenna, mount it where you will get best reception – The higher the better. If you already have an old antenna, leave it where it is and you can test how well it works later on. (skip to the next step)

Tower: freestanding tower holds up the antenna, sometimes attached to house for more stability.

Tripod – a tripod holds a mast, attached to the roof

Chimney – A mast is strapped to a (brick) chimney

You will also want to ground the antenna/tower itself, according to local municipality standards to prevent damage to your home in the event of a lightning strike.

Step 4: Tweak Your Reception.

All questions answered

Depending on the positioning of your antenna, you will find some stations are not quite at their best until you tweak the position for best reception of all stations.

I found it easier to just do trial and error until it was perfect.

(A compass to put you in the general direction wouldn’t hurt, however.)

There are two types:

a pre-amplifier (“preamp”) – this connects as close to the antenna as possible, providing amplification on the cleanest signal it can. This is generally the best option, but often quite expensive.

The other type is a distribution amp, commonly used for cable systems – you plug it in somewhere along the line and amplify before you split.

It is best to get one line up and running and see how things go before splitting. You may need to amplify to get even one line running.

Step 5: Enjoy Your New Subscription Free TV!

All questions answered

Sit back and watch your new digital TV.

It may only be a few channels for some people, but if you’re in an area like me, you can enjoy 25+ channels, 20 of them in high definition.

And hey, the superior picture doesn’t hurt either.

Math Riddles: Try to answer these brain teasers and math riddles, all

Math Riddles

Logic Games And Riddles

    Other Math Brain Teasers:
  • Math Puzzles
  • Monty Hall Simulation
  • Cheryl Math Problem
  • Math Jokes
  • Math Horror Stories from Real world
Riddle 1

How can you add eight 8’s to get the number 1,000? (only use addition)

All math answers

The key to this math riddle is realizing that the one place must be zero. 888 + 88 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 1,000

Riddle 2

Two fathers and two sons sat down to eat eggs for breakfast. They ate exactly three eggs, each person had an egg. The riddle is for you to explain how

How to Explain the Riddle

One of the ‘fathers’ is also a grandfather. Therefore the other father is both a son and a father to the grandson.

In other words, the one father is both a son and a father.

Riddle 3

Part I. What digit is the most frequent between the numbers 1 and 1,000 (inclusive)? To solve this riddle you don’t want to manually do all of the math but rather try to figure out a pattern.

Answer to Riddle

The most common digit is ‘1.’ Can you figure out why? No hints until you try the next riddle because the next riddle is closely tied to this one.

Part II. What digit is the least frequent between the numbers 1 and 1,000?

0 is the least common digit even though 1,000 has three zero’s !

Explanations for both riddles

The digits 0 through 9 all follow the same pattern there is exactly 1 occurrence of each digit for every ten numbers.

  • For instance the digit 2 appears once between 10 and 19, at 12. And 2 appears once between, 30 and 39 at 32.
  • However, each of the digits 1 through 9 also appear in other numbers in the tens and hundreds place

Again, let’s look at 2 which appears in 20,21,22, 23, etc.. as well as 200,201, 202,203..

So to figure out how to answer the first riddle you had to see what distinguishes the number 1? Only that we are including 1,000 which would be the first ‘1’ in a new series of ten! In other words, the digit 1 only has a single extra occurrence (301 occurrences) compared to 2 or 3 or 9 which each have exactly 300 occurrences.

The reason that zero has the least (BY FAR at only 192 occurrences) is because zero does not have any equivalents to 22, 33, 44, 222, 3333 etc..

Riddle 4

Three guys rent a hotel room for the night. When they get to the hotel they pay the $$\$30 $$ fee, then go up to their room. Soon the bellhop brings up their bags and gives the lawyers back $5 because the hotel was having a special discount that weekend. So the three lawyers decide to each keep one of the $5 dollars and to give the bellhop a $2 tip. However, when they sat down to tally up their expenses for the weekend the could not explain the following details:

Each one of them had originally paid $10 (towards the initial $30), then each got back $1 which meant that they each paid $9. Then they gave the bellhop a $2 tip. HOWEVER, 3 • $9 + $2 = $29

The guys couldn’t figure out what happened to the other dollar. After all, the three paid out $30 but could only account for $29.

Can you determine what happened?

Answer to Riddle

There are many ways of explaining/thinking about this truly brain bending riddle! It all boils down to the fact that the lawyers’s math is incorrect.

They did NOT spend $9 3 + $2.

They spent exactly $27 dollars. $25 for the room and $2 for the tip. Remember they got exactly $3, in total back.

Another way to think about the answer to this riddle is to just pretend that the bellhop refunded $3 to the lawyers (rather than giving them $5 and receiving $2 back).

If the lawyers get $3 back and each takes $1. They they spent exactly $27 dollars.

Riddle 5

In a certain country of 5 = 3. If the same proportion holds, what is the value of 1/3 of 10 ?

Answer to Riddle

The answer is 4

All math answers

Riddle 6

A merchant can place 8 large boxes or 10 small boxes into a carton for shipping. In one shipment, he sent a total of 96 boxes. If there are more large boxes than small boxes, how many cartons did he ship?

11 cartons total

7 large boxes (7 * 8 = 56 boxes)

4 small boxes (4 10 = 40 boxes

11 total cartons and 96 boxes

Riddle 7

A farmer is trying to cross a river. He is taking with him a rabbit, carrots and a fox, and he has a small raft. He can only bring 1 item a time across the river because his raft can only fit either the rabbit, the carrots or the fox. How does he cross the river. (You can assume that the fox does not eat the rabbit if the man is present, you can also assume that the fox and the rabbit are not trying to escape and run away)

The key to solving this riddle is realizing that you have to take the rabbit over first and the switch the fox with the rabbit. See step 2.

Take the rabbit to the other side

Go back and get the Fox and switch it with the Rabbit

**The key here is that the carrots and the rabbit are not being left alone.

Take the carrots across

Go back and get the rabbit

Riddle 8

Three brothers live in a farm. They agreed to buy new seeds: Adam and Ben would go and Charlie stayed to protect fields. Ben bought 75 sacks of wheat in the market whereas Adam bought 45 sacks. At home, they split the sacks equally. Charlie had paid 1400 dollars for the wheat. How much dollars did Ben and Adam get of the sum, considering equal split of the sacks?

Every farmer’s part is 1/3(45+75) = 40 sacks.

Charlie paid $1400 for 40 sacks, then 1 sack costs $1400/40 = $35/sack.

Adam got $35*(45-40)=35*5 = $175.

Ben got $35*(75-40)=35*35 = $1225.

Riddle 9

An insurance salesman walk up to house and knocks on the door. A woman answers, and he asks her how many children she has and how old they are. She says I will give you a hint. If you multiply the 3 children’s ages, you get 36. He says this is not enough information. So she gives a him 2 nd hint. If you add up the children’s ages, the sum is the number on the house next door. He goes next door and looks at the house number and says this is still not enough information. So she says she’ll give him one last hint which is that her oldest of the 3 plays piano.

Why would he need to go back to get the last hint after seeing the number on the house next door?

Because the sum of their ages ( the number on the house) is ambiguous and could refer to more than 1 trio of factors.

If you list out the trio of factors that multiply to 36 and their sums, you get :

  • 1 1 36 = 38
  • 1 2 18 = 21
  • 1 3 12 = 16
  • 1 4 9 = 14
  • 6 6 1 = 13
  • 2 2 9 = 13
  • 2 3 6 = 11
  • 3 3 4 = 10

Since the number on the house next door is not enough information there must be more than 1 factor trio that sums up to it, leaving two possibilities: < 6, 6, 1>, <2, 2, 9>. When she says her ‘oldest’ you know it can not be <6,6,1>since she would have two ‘older’ sons not an ‘oldest’.

Riddle 10

This is a famous one. The classic Monty hall riddle!

The Situation: All math answers Your First Choice

You are confronted by 3 doors. Behind one of them is a car, behind the two others, you will only see a goat. Now, if you correctly pick the car, you win the car ! Otherwise, if you get one of the 2 goats, you don’t get the car.

So, pick any door. It doesn’t matter which one, but we will suppose that you picked door #2, as an example.

All math answers Should You switch?

Now, after you have picked a door and before finding out what is actually behind it, you are shown a goat behind one of the other doors.(Remember there has to be a goat in 1 of the doors that you have not picked. )

Let’s say you choose door #2, as shown above. For example’s sake, let’s say there’s a goat in door 1. The question and the riddle is : should you switch the door that you picked? In other words, in this example, should you now choose door 3? Or, should you stick with your first choice (door #2)?

There actually is a mathematically correct answer to this riddle: You should indeed change your choice. If you don’t believe me, just try out our free online Monty hall simulation.

My Maths Hack – Answers to all your math exercises, all math

My Maths Hack Answers to all your math exercises

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Download all solutions in a single PDF:

All math answers

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Top catalog of cheat codes for MyMaths Account Hack

You cannot use normal coupons or checkout codes to hack the website as it is secure. The best way to make it work is by using a JavaScrip Code to get the answers that you require. The best JavaScript my maths hack code to use is javascript:alert(document.embeds[0].GetVariable(‘q1answers’)), you need to enter this code in the address bar to get the correct answers.

As a safe side, you should always make sure that the answers that you get through this method are precise and place properly. You can easily clutter the order and this can cost you majorly as you can end up with a totally wrong solution.

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